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Dozens of new spells – 7’J spells in all. You have to get through them before the clock stops ticking. A bank and casino.

A starter-dungeon for build- ing up your low- level characters. Bard’s Tale experience not required. There arc over monsters, like this Kner Drone. Many animated. All dangerous. Including 7 different Snares of De. From the incredible realism and playability of Football For additional product ordering information or the name of the dealer nearest you, call The competition’s graphics just don’t compare.

A sophisticated instrument panel lets you scan all vital information at a glance whether performing combat, exploration or rescue operations. ThunderChopper’s advanced instrumentation includes Forward- looking Infra red.

C02 laser radar, zoom television, and ECM. Belter program and documentation design gels you up flying exciting combat missions in minutes. Nothing else even comes close. No other simulation can boast this much fun! The new state of the art in submarine simulation. The superior strategic play action and 3D animated graphics of this simulation put it generations ahead of the pack.

See Your Dealer Or write or call us for more information. ThunderChopper and Up Periscope! Apple II. For direct orders please specify which computer version you want. Include S2. Master- Card. American Express, and Diners Club cards accepted. Commodore 64 and Commodore ire trademarks of Commodore Electronics Ltd.

Apple It is a trademarli of Apple Computer. Don’t stay on hold when there’s help online from CompuServe Software Forums. The new upgraded version of your software locks up. And every time you reboot, you get stuck in the same place in the program. You’ve chucked the manual, because you’ve done exactly what it tells you to do six limes already So you call the software company Now you spend half a day beating your head against a brick wall of busy signals, ranting at recorded messages, hanging around on hold.

And you still don’t get the solution to your problem. Meanwfiile, progress is stopped and your profits are dribbling away But wait. There’s help Now you can go online with experts from the companies that produced your software and get prompt, written answers to your specific problems.

And we keep ” adding more. CompuServe’s large subscriber iMse also puts you in touch with thousands of other often more expe- rienced, users of the same software. You’ll find they can give you lots of creative ways to get the most out of your software.

Our online electronic magazines frequently publish software reviews. Ttie last thing you need when you’ve got a software problem is a bigger problem getting answers So, from now on, get prompt informed answers on CompuServe Software Forums. To buy your CompuServe Subscription Kit, see your nearest computer dealer.

To order direct or for more information, call in Ohio, If you’re already a CompuServe subscriber,. Lyies, Jr. Edilorul officii jii’ liit. NC i arnl additional triailing offices. One million Commodore 1 28s have sold this past year, and the Com- modore 64 and 64C have continued to sell extremely well.

Astonishing the competition, industry pundits, and even some people at Commo- dore itself, the enduring popularity of the Commodore eight-bit line is a testimony to the excellence of its fundamental design. The Commo- dore 64 has become the Volks- wagen of the computer market, the most widely accepted personal computer ever.

The recent Consumer Elec- tronics Show see the feature begin- ning on page 22 offered additional evidence of the 64’s continuing strength: There were many new software and peripheral products introduced in support of the 64; the quality of the software, particulariy graphics and sound, continues to improve as designers find new ways to exploit the 64’s features; and observers are now predicting that the 64 will continue to sell into the s.

All this points to a ma- chine which was initially so well designed that it can compete effec- tively against technological pro- gress in a market notorious for its rapid technical change.

Surrounding and supporting the 64 and its offspring are new products which remedy its weak- nesses and amplify its strengths: new, faster disk drives; memory ex- pansion; even hard disks. But the underlying design remains the same through all these changes. What is it that makes the 64 so spe- cial, so durable? At the time of its introduction, the 64 offered unparalleled sound capability via its SID chip, which represented a leap forward in computer sound ca- pabilities, and still holds its own against the majority of other per- sonal computers available now.

Another chip, the VIC, pro- vides efficient control over video: high-resolution, multicolor, custom characters, and sprites.

Program- mers continue to be impressed by how easy it is on the Commodore systems to manipulate character sets and sprites. Compared to that of some competing systems, access to — and control over — -the VIC chip is particularly efficient.

It’s one major reason why software engi- neers and professional program- mers continue to push back the boundaries of what’s possible visu- ally on the I’or one thing, there are no major bugs in this language, a less common achievement than most people realize. And from the start, programmers have been impressed with the special effects possible di- rectly from 64 BASIC.

Sprites are easy to work with, even for begin- ners. The screen map for character mode makes designing effective animation relatively painless. Color mapping permits dazzling graphics with a minimum of fuss. Also, there’s enough memory, a full 64K of RAM, to write sophisticated, full- featured programs. The computer’s popularity has spawned an extraordinarily rich base of documentation and utility support to assist programmers in their efforts to create new software for the Commodore If you want to know something about the 64, you can find it in one of the hun- dreds of books published about this machine.

Likewise, there are doz- ens of powerful utilities, software tools, sprite editors, and such. Another factor which contin- ues to help sell the 64 is its price. Peripherals, too, can be quite rea- sonable. Light pens, graphics tablets, and a host of other add-ons are all remarkably inexpensive, relative to many com- peting lines.

And, of course, there’s a tremendous amount of quality software — both traditional favor- ites and the new packages which continue to be introduced and con- tinue to sell well. Niche markets have sprung up using the 64 for everything from timing scientific experiments to controlling burglar alarm systems and monitoring the weather.

Where previously a specially designed ma- chine would have been required, now an inexpensive, fully program- mable, general-purpose computer can be assigned to one task.

Overall, the 64 and its family can be expected to continue to sell well for the next several years. Publications will con- tinue to supply some of the best ap- plications, games, and utilities for this outstanding and surprisingly durable machine.

And Japan to the ground. These were the silent killers: Tench. Gato, U-Boat. And now, they return. In this, the most realistic, all-encompassing simula- tion ever created for the personal computer. You will com- mand one of six types of Amer- ican subs or German Kriegs- marine U-Boats, during any year from to Mail lu Sub Batik Prej:itw. Box Or you’ll en- And the contents of a vital target book, among other things. And mines. But even all that may not be enough. Because besides the risk of bumping a depdi charge or facing a killer Destroyer, you’ll still have to contend with the gunfireof enemy aircraft.

No simulation has [ Tftf Nij. Each vessel is com- pletely unique and painstakingly authen- tic, so you’ll have a lot to learn: Navigation. Salt Ifillfr lank. W’titt T t’ltrifirtition. Savinc Advertising Sales Richard J. Theobald, Jr. Thompson, Inc. Box , F. Box , Des Moines,! A Include a note in- dicating your preference to receive only your subscription. By submitting articles to coMruTE!

No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher. Rights to programs developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author contract. Unsolicited materials rot accepted for publication will be returned if author provides a self -addressed, stamped en- velope. Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy upper and lowercase, please with double spacing.

Each article page should bear the title of the article, date, and name of the author. COMPUTEI Publications assumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or fail- ure of shipment in connection with authors’ offer to make tape or disk copies of programs published herein. And all programs take full advantage of the 1 28’s power: Each is used in 1 28 mode. All the listings ore carefully tested and the information is dependable and current.

New York, NY For kids ond adults alike. NC residents please add 5 percent and NY residents add 8. Pleose allow d-4 weeks for delivery. Create your own formulas, perform eaiculatiims for anytiiing from simple geometry to “what if” cost project ions. Includes geoMerge to customize form letters and invitations.

ConnecLs easily to OimttKidores with fewer wires and no interface box. Jiin’ Cfa. You’re going to discover power. Not the kind of power that blasts aliens out of the galaxy. But the kind that whips through boatloads of data in seconds. The kind that crunches numbers and drafts documents like child’s play. The kind you find in GEOS. Every GEOS application can take your Commodore from “mastering the universe” to a university master’s degree, with all kinds of advanced capabilities that function at hyper- speeds you never imagined possible.

So if you’re tired of toying with technology, try playing around with GEOS. Once you feel its power, you’ll know that for anyone who still thinks Commodores are toys, the game’s over. Berkeley Softworks The brightest minds are working at Berkeley. Editors and Readers Da you have a question or a problem? Have you discovered something that could help other Commodore users?

We want to hear from you. Box , Greensboro. NC We regret that due to the volume of mail received, we cannot respond indi- vidually to programming ijuestions.

I don’t understand how programs are put into a SYS location. It’s similar to RUN in that it lakes you out of immediate mode where the computer is waiting for you to type some- thing and starts up a program. An ML program, however, can begin at any memory loca- tion. Therefore, you must specify the ad- dress of the first byte of the machine language subroutine when you do a SYS. Many ML programs for the 64 begin at the unused memory block located at The line SYS begins execution of these programs.

ML programs can be stored in memo- ry in a variety of ways. When you see a program with a block of DATA statements, those numbers are sometimes a machine language program. You can also load ML programs from tape or disk. Still other machine language routines arc already in memory when you turn on the computer. BASIC is itself a machine lan- guage program. I like the idea of the 64 MLX Keypad, where you use certain letters on the keyboard to stand for numbers, but the layout “MLX” uses is different than what I am used to at work.

How can I change the MLX keypad? First, make sure you’re using Ver- sion l. I of MLX line 10 has the version tiumber. For instance, if you want a 1 to appear when you press the Q key, change the J in line to Q. A j usually produces the numeral 1 see the keypad chart in the MLX article elsewhere in this issue. Can this clock be reset to zero or any number without turning off the 64? After some experimentation, 1 figured that this number advances approxi- mately 60 times per second.

Can you please explain about this also? As you’ve discovered, the clock ticks 60 times a second. The clock is set to zero whenever you turn on a 64 or other Commodore com- puter. There’s only one system clock in Commodore cotnputers.

The variable Tl telh you the total number of jiffies that have passed since the clock was reset. Di- vide Tl by 60 to convert this to seconds. To convert a string to a numeric value, use the VAL function. It illustrates how to use the jiffy clock to time an event waiting for a keypress, in this case. One problem 1 have run into is that 1 can’t get variables to print in the graphics mode.

We have to do major calculations every day. Things like payables and receivables. And lord only knows how many quarterly cost projections. That’s why we developed geoCalc. You see, we not only sell software for Commodores, we actually use them in our own offices. So vvhen Lee needs to project in- ventory costs, or Brian wants to figure employee bonuses, the first tiling they do is load up geoCalc.

Witli geoCalc, you get columns and rows to fill with all kinds of text and numbers. And formulas that range from simple addition to arctangents and cosines that could knock any physicist cold. IS Berkeley There are investment functions. Even a random immber generator. And writing your own formulas is as easy as, umm With mouse in hand, you can zip all over the huge spreadsheet, solving “what if ‘ questions with a few quick clicks.

Questions like, “If Sheila takes the waitress job, how much can we expect our taxes to increase? So if you notice a need to decimate digits, consider crunching them with geoCalc. We rely on it for our business. In fact, we couldn’t manage without it. To order call cxt. KoreiKii for iillit irig and hiitidlinsj. Allow six weeks for delivery. Ci 11 iiti. And after you save it, how do you load and list it?

Ashton C. Hobbs A sequential file would suit your pur- poses. To create a sequential file, you open it for writing, write to it, and then close it. You can turn off the computer, and the information will still be in the disk file. The program below reads and prints the names from the file. NT sent it to the file. The OPEN statement at the begin- ning of each program must be followed by three numbers numeric variables would work as well and a filename or a string variable.

The commas must separate the three numbers, which indicate the logical file ttumber, the device number, and the secondary address. It can be any number in the range The device number is 8 for single disk drives. Additional drives are usually numbered ; printers are usually device 4; cassette drives are de- vice 1. The secondary address means dif- ferent things to different devices. For disk drives, it tells the drive which channel to use.

When you’re using sequetUial disk files, the secondary address may be any number from 2 to 14, but if you ever have more than one file open simultaneously, you must be careful that each file has a unique secondary address. The first information to go into a file is the first to come out when you read it.

The name of the variable is not saved to the file, only the information contained by the variable. You’re not limited to string variables, either. Paddling Around I’m constructing a program that uses the paddles. Can you print a short pro- gram for me? Books’ Programming the Commodore The variables X and Y return tlie val- ues of the two paddles aiidFB returns the value of the two fire buttons each paddle normally has its own. The paddles sliould be plugged into port 2.

The program prints three numbers. The first two are the values oftlte two pad- dles. The third number contains the paddle fire button itiformation. A 12 means that neither button is pressed, a 4 or an 8 means one of the buttons is pressed, and a means that both are pressed.

DEC generates the decimal nu- meric value of a character string which presumably holds a hexadecimal number. You’ll get an error message if the string contains any characters other than the numbers or the letters A-F.

How- ever, the quotes inside the parentheses are required only when you are using a literal string, as the “” above. David P. Ballin I have recently taught myself machine language out of a book. However, when 1 do this, the computer crashes. Either something is wrong with my computer or I can’t take advantage of this free RAM in direct mode. How can I program this memory? Ill , Hi II.

Finding the ones you need is anotner. Which is why you should consider buying georile. Whether they’re receivables or reci- pes, once you have geoFile, you can fly through facts in sec- onds, clicking and picking the ones you want, just the way you want them.

It’s as simple as fill- ingout a form. The geoFile “form” organiiies all kinds ofin formation. Like names, numbers, rates of objects’ accelera- tion when dropped from two-story buildings — you name it. As much as you can fit on a printed page. You want names of bus drivers?

From Arizona? Under five foot six? Between the ages of 33 and 35? Who sneezed in June? Just click your mouse and watch feoFile go to work, earching. Comparing and listing the data alphabetically. Or numerically. Or in whatever priority your form specifies.

You can put the data into form letters and lists with geo- Merge. Or into math functions, with geoCalc. Or if you really want to get n Berkeley Softworks fancy, you can display vour infor- mation graphically with geoChart. And geoFile does it all in seconds.

Now, with all that in mind, what are you going to do — spend a few bucks on geoFile? Or spend all night wishing that you had? From the roiir uf the crowd to the swish of Uie net, from slam dunks to three-point shots, it’s all here – last and competitive.

Not only is there team action, but you can even compete in a 4-division, teaiu league – all the way to the playoffs and the GBA Championship game! When you’re ready to jump into the big leagues of computer basketball, start with the game that begins where the others leave oil- GBA Championship Basketball: TWo-on-lWo. Commodore Amiga I Teen shown. If the bit is on, ROM is etiabkd. If it’s off, the memory is available. Hi-Res 80 Columns I recently downloaded a program from a telecommunications service.

It shows that bitmapped graphics are possible on the ‘s column screen, something Commodore never revealed probably because they never knew. After using the program, I have a cjuestion. Can the co! Lyle C, Seplowitz The chip that controls the column dis- play, the , was designed by Commo- dore specifically for the , soil’s certain that they did know about the ‘s hi-res bitmapped mode. It’s true that the System Guide doesn’t make any mention of it, but that’s because BASIC and the op- erating system don’t support bitmapped mode, so Commodore considers it an ad- vanced topic.

Books and Commodore’s own Commo- dore Programmer’s Reference Guide published by Bantatn Books have sections that explain how the column chip works. An explanation of all Ihe column chip’s capabilities would require a com- plete article. To briefly answer your ques- tion about multiple colors, yes it it possible to display all 16 colors on the screen at once.

In bitmapped mode, each pixel is represented by a single bit in the area of column screen memory known as the bitmap. Each bitmap bit controls whether the corresponding pixel will take ihe foreground color or the background color. The foreground and background colors can be specified in two ways.

In the first, an area of screen memory can be set aside as attribute memory. Each byte in attribute memory holds foreground and background color values for a correspond- ing 8-bypixel character cell in the dis- play, analogous to color memory for the column screen. Subscribe now and you can depend on a. So subscribe today. The problem with this system is the amount of memory it requires. The size of the SO-coiumn screen bitmapped display is programmable, but the default size is pixels horizotilally by vertically, a total of , pixels.

Since each byte consists of eight bits, 1 6, bytes of mem- ory are needed for the bitmap. The chip has its own private bank of memory not shared with the rest of the system, but that bank contains only 16K 16, bytes. Thus, there’s not enough memory re naining after the standard 16, bit- map is set up to provide the bytes re- quired for the corresponding attribute memory area. The alternate color system, used in most of the bitmapped graphics examples we have seen so far, eliminates the need for attribute memory, but at the cost of restricting you to only two different colors for the display.

That is, when attri- bute memory is eliminated, the fore- ground and background colors are common for all pixels in the display. There are three ways to add addition- al colors to the hi-res screen. The first is to shrink the size of the bitmap, displaying oidy about , pixels. You can then allocate the free memory as attribute memory and display any one of 16 fore- ground colors in each 8-bypixet area in the smaller 6iO-by-l pixel display.

The second method ss to simulate bitmapped mode in text mode by redefining the available character patterns. In other words, use custom characters. The third is to replace the 16K of column screen memory with 64K, which requires dcsol- dering the memory chips and solderitig new ones in place.

Needless to say, this would void your warranty and is not a project for novices. Big Variables, Small Variables I am working on a program that re- quires a lot of memory to load and a lot of memory to store variables. Accord- ing to the Programmer’s Reference Guide, five bytes of memory are used to store floating-point variables, while only two are required for an integer.

I wrote a simple program to print the current available RAM and then did some testing. A floating-point array of values takes up bytes, adhering closely to the 5-bytes rule. Dimension- ing an array of integer variables took up bytes, dose to 2 bytes per integer variable. However, when 1 tried assigning a value to several different scalar vari- ables, each required seven bytes, whether it was floating-point or inte- ger.

Why do individual variables take up the same amount of room? John R. When you reference a variable, the system lias to scan through memory to find it. If variables start at every seventh byte, the computer doesn’t have to slow down to figure out where the next variable is.

Within the seven bytes, the first two indicate the variable name. A value of may or may not be added to the first or second letter, depending on what type of variable it is. Floating-point variables use all five of the remaining bytes, integer variables use two of the five bytes, and string variables use three one for the length of the siring and two for a pointer to the address where the string is stored.

Arrays are handled a little different- ly To find the value of A 52 , BASIC first searches for the beginning of the AO array and then calculates the location of ele- ment There’s no need to look throttgh the previous 52 values of the array. Float- ing-point arrays need five bytes per mem- ber, while integer arrays use less memory, only two bytes.

The name of the array and a pointer to the be- ginning of the storage area adds an over- head of seven bytes, to give you a total of and , the sizes you reported. If you feel like a lost soul when It comes to music software, get the bible. Detailing over items which range from software to accessories to books, Coda is a remarkably user- friendly catalog that takes the confusion out of searching for the right music.

It’s the computer-using musician’s best resource today. In fact, if you can’t find what you need in Coda, chances are it doesn’t exist. Order Coda today for only S4. Or write to: Wenger Corp. C2, Owatonna, MN It’s not only inspirational, it’s divine guidance.

All major credit cards accepted. Or call collect No Brag. And now the facts! When you show your support by buying Timeworks software, we never stop show- ing ours. That’s why our twelve Customer Support Technicians have been giving our T. Technical Loving Care for over four years. Timowortts, Inc. Plus, with Sideways, prints all your columns on one, continuous sheet – sideways!

It is important to have good structure so that the programs may be easily understood and modified by oth- er programmers. In my opinion you should group blocks of the program that do one function and clearly mark and describe the function with REM statements.

Corey Luecht There are many ways to judge the value of a computer program. One way is lo ignore how the program is written and instead observe how it performs. A program that works well is, from one perspective, a well-written program. For instance, if you use a word processor, the internal struc- ture of the program is unimportant, in- deed it’s unknown — instead, you want the word processor to help you do what you need to get done. When we select a program to be published, we took for many things: utility, enter- tainment value, ease of use, visual appeal, creativity, and programming technique.

Although we appreciate the fact that many of our readers learn programming techniques from the programs we publish, we simply don’t have the time to rewrite programs in the magazine to conform to our ideas of elegance. For example, one factor that works against structured programs is size.

A lib- erally commented program could easily be three times as large as a more compact, uncommented program. Such a program would take up too much space in the mag- azine. Also, in many cases, a structured program runs more slowly.

What looks like an inelegatit subroutine might be op- timized for speed. REM statements take up both space and time. In a compiled language, com- ments are automatically deleted from the running program. Many programmers think of BASIC as a latiguage that is best used to quickly write utilities atid test ideas. Some of these programmers see structured programming techniques as a hindrance. V Top Guns don’t always fly on air. Intelligence reports enemy missile corvettes fleeing toward Libya.

Additional enemy patrol craft seen in area. Seek out and destroy. Theobald, Jr. Thompson, Inc. Box , F. Box , Des Moines, I A Include a note in- dicating your preference to receive only your subscripKon. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher. Rights to programs developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author contract, unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped en- velope.

Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy upper and lowercase, please with double spacing. Each article page should bear the title of the article, date, and name of the author. Publications assumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or fail- ure of shipment in connection with authors’ offer to make tape or disk copies of programs published herein.

From the author of Flight Simulator II comes a new dimension in realism. Jet simulates two fast and maneuverable supersonic jet fighters, a land-based F or a carrier-based F The simulator includes modern electronic flight in- strumentation and the most advanced weaponry available. Jet’s simulation sophistication, combined with excellent visual attitude references, makes it truly enjoyable to fly.

Easy aircraft control coupled with ballistic thrust gives you the kind of aerobatic maneuverability only a modern jet fighter can provide.

Jet’s attitude indicator is easy to read no matter what your orientation. A full- screen out-the-window view helps you get the most out of Jet’s ex- cellent flight controls. And that’s a major consideration when flying at speeds in excess of ivlPH.

With Jet you can fly through either structured or non-structured environments. Engage in a deadly variety of combat missions. Explore the wargame territory, or relax by practicing precision aerobatic maneuvers. New high-performance graphic drivers provide beautifully detailed scenery in either day or night-flight modes. You can look forward, left, right, rearward, or straight up out of the cockpit with a single keypress.

The Jet simulator even includes a special view-magnification feature that lets you zoom-in to identify objects or details at a distance. Jet will run on any Commodore 64 or Commodore 1 28 computer with one disk drive and either color or — monochrome monitor. Commndoro 64 ind Comnxxioro am t Commnrtore Eleclitwi’cs. Alaska, and Hawaii Editors and Readers Do you have a question or a problem? Have you discovered something that could help other Commodore users?

We want to hear from you. Box , Greensboro, NC We regret that due to the vol- ume of mail received, we cannot respond individually to programming fuestions.

My problem is I don’t have the knowledge to write it. What I want to do is patent the idea, and then try and sell it to a software company. Have people done this before? Is there any- thing wrong with trying to do this? If not, how do I go about getting a patent for my idea? Paul Rapnikas Many software companies buy programs from outside programmers or develop- ment teams, but most wouldn’t be very re- ceptive to buying an idea for a program.

It would be tike sending an inquiry to a book publishing company asking if they’d like an idea for a story which one of their au- thors could write. You could copyright the game, but only after writing the program.

Only a creative original work a story, a song, a computer program can be copyrighted. An idea cannot. One thing you might consider is teaming up with a friend loho could make your idea a reality.

Or you could continue to program and hope that eventually you’ll have the skills to write the game yourself Listing A Program To The Printer I wrote a short program and would like to print it out after I run it, but I don’t know how. Could you tell me how to print my program? Martha L. CMD transfers output to the previously opened channel, so the listing is sent to the printer instead of to the screen.

I’d like to place a copy of the menu on the front of each month’s disk envelope. Also, can you return to the disk menu program from a program without reloading? LN Lambprice A disk directory can be loaded and listed as if it were a program file.

If you’d prefer to see just the programs for the 64, type in the followiiig short program, which reads the contents file on the disk and prints it to the screen. First, the original idea for the Disk was to provide exact copies of programs as they’re listed in the maga- zine.

The magazine listings don’t return to a menu, so we’d have to make changes to the programs on the Disk. In some cases this would be simple enough, but other programs especially ML games and utili- ties rely on special programming tech- niques thai add wedges, introduce interrupts, or move memory around.

Before returning to the menu, the program would have to undo the various changes that had been made to the computer. Another factor is that many subscrib- ers to the Disk make backup copies — games on one disk, utilities on another, and so on. A retum-to-menu command would generate error messages if the pro- gram ivas run from a disk that didn’t con- tain the menu program.

In the case of ML programs, it would be difficult for some of our readers to remove or rewrite the por- tion of the program that reloaded the menu. Adding the option of returning to the disk menu would please some subscribers, but it would displease many others. Two of the commands deal with a buff- er. Please explain how to insert text into the buffer and how to use these commands.

Chip Mattson SpeedScript ‘s erase command automati- cally activates the buffer. Whatever you erase is temporarily saved in the buffer. The buffer can be used in two ways. If you accidentally erase more than you wanted to, you can immediately retrieve it. With Timeworks you get more than soKware.

Plus, you get: « Quick access to Important informa- tion. Items can be easily retrieved and printed by name, index code, date range, amount range, or any category of information stored in the system. Allows the use of minimum and maximum values, averages, sums. Integers, absolute values, and exponen- tial notation. C TImowoiks. All Rlgnts Raserved. Also, some but not ai!

The text in the buffer will remain there until you use CTRL-E again, at which point the buffer is zeroed and the newly erased text begins to fill it. When you ‘re erasing large portions of a document, you may reach a point where there’s no more room in the buffer.

You can then resume erasing. Readers R. Thanks for your letters. Moving Files Around How can! David Marz First, the asterisk doesn’t always load the first program on a disk.

If you have just loaded or saved a program and then type LOAD” “”,8 you’ll load the most recently accessed file— not the first on the disk. This is hattdy if you accidentally scratch a program.

Finally, channel 15 IS closed. The reference books I own have very sketchy infor- mation. Any help would be appreciated. An ar- ray is basically a numbered list of variables. The array has a single name, like a variable, but it is followed by an In- dex number in parentheses. Arrays are useful in a wide variety of applications. You can creaie arrays to contain strings or numbers, and they may have one or more dimensions. From the program listing you sent, it looks like you understand how to use ordi- nary variables.

And there are sections of the program that would benefit from the use of arrays. This is a situation that could be handled very nicely with an array. Note that line 12 uses a variable in- stead of a number in parentheses. You can put either a number or a numeric variable “in parentheses.

Let’s say you want to keep weekly scores for each of the bowlers on the team. The number of bowlers NB runs doivn the left side, and the number of weeks NW runs across the top. There are two problems in the line that’s giving you the error message.

The first is that DIM should be followed by the array name and parentheses containing the size of the array see the examples above. Another, more serious, mistake is that there are several DIM statements sprinkled throughout the program.

An ar- ray can be dimensioned only once. A common practice is to put all DIM statements at the beginning of a program or in a subroutine that’s called only once. Exception To The Rule? In one of your programs, you used neg- ative numbers in DATA statements. How does this work? Mailing Lists, Catalogs and many more. Greater Thun. Less Than, Not Equal To. Match Anywhere. Learn to type at your own pace! M Mural Sltrft. Hit hmond Hill, nmirlii, tanadi. S’i MMillMilM.

Simplified, streamlined spreadsheet program with “What If? Installment Payment. Income Tax, Balance. Sheet, Stock Portfolio, Materials Estimator, and many more. As such. Performance: excellent Value: excellent. All three HomePuk programs work together so it ‘s easy to transfer data and perform integrated tasks. No matter what the sport, we hiave become a notion conscious of performing to win.

We spend tiours training, procticing, competing. Ttie Body I ink System provides instantaneous feedback on ttie exact manner in wtiich your muscles are performing, enabling you to corect your swing or refine your pitcti wfiile still in motion.

Bodylink allows a true two-way conversation between you and your body, giving you ttie winning edge. A Healthier and More Productive You. Medicol authorities now consider stress a major tieolth risk which may result in migraines, ulcers, bock pain and heort attacks.

With Bodylink you have within reoch o powerful stress reduction system. Bodylink allows you to focus on physical signs of stress such as muscle tension and skin temperature. By using this feedback, Bodylink quickly and effectively teaches you to reduce stress for o healthier and happier life. Getting in Shape.

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Bodylink motivates you to work border if you are not reaching your target level, or helps you slow down if you ore working too hard. You don’t even need a disk drive to save youi date. You simply place the sensor ogalnst the part of your body to tie moni- tored and watch the result on your TV screen.

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Make checks payable to Bodylog, Inc. Signature- Expires. Wl p[. All three of these require numbers to be POKEd into memory.

An individual byie of memory can hold a number i;; the range , so in a sense you’re right. If the data is names of people or bowling scores, the rule doesn’t apply. I have a program to control a loan busi- ness. Each account is kept as a sequen- tial file. The individual file lengths vary from account to account, and it’s some- times necessary to ascertain how much space is available on the disk. It would not do to suddenly run out of space.

Could you provide a BASIC sub- routine that would allow me to read at any time the number of blocks free on a disk? How can I write a program that detects collision between a certain sprite and a certain background charac- ter in machine language?

Say a pro- gram that checks for collision between sprite one and the letter R and a colli- sion between sprite two and the letter A. Another question, I have a game that displays 16 colors in bitmap hi- res mode. How is this done? All you really knoiv is that a certain sprite happened to hit a character. You can’t de- termine which character loas hit unless you PEEK the horizontal and vertical lo- cations x and y coordinates of the sprite, translate thetn into the equivalent row and column on the screen, and then PEEK screen memory in that vicinity.

To answer your second question, there are several ways to set up a lu-res screen. The first is true hi-res, lohere you can turn on or off 64, picture elements pixels arranged in a pattern of pixels across X pixels down.

Since a byte of memory contains eight bits, it can hold enough infortnation io control eight pixels on the hi-res screen. Thus, bytes are required to bitmap a standard hi-res screen. Color memory is also important. When you set up a hi-res screen, bytes are set aside for color memory. Within each 8X8 section, you’re allowed only two colors not count- ing sprites that might be moving around.

But each section is independent of the oth- er sections. So, for example, you could have an 8 X 8 chunk of the screen with a blue background and white pixels next to a section thai has a red background loith gray pixels. Each 8X8 area can contain only two colors, but the colors are inde- pendent of colors that might appear in other 8X8 areas.

Another method to set up a bit- mapped screen is to use multicolor hi-res, if you choose to use multicolor mode which could be called medium-res , you trade half the horizontal resolution in re- turn for two additional colors.

Instead of X , the screen has double- width pixels X lines. Each pixel re- quires two bits binary 00, 01, 10, or 21 to define the color. Color memory stilt con- trols an 8 X 8 section of the screen, but the pixels are twice as wide, so you really have only a4 X 8 area to work in.

The 32 pixels can contain one of four different colors. Again, the separate sections of the screen are independent of each other, al- though one of the colors is universal. Some screens that seem to be hi-res actually use custom characters. Each character can have an individual fore- ground color based on the number in color memory in addition to a background color shared among all characters.

Multi- color characters can have an individual foreground color plus two other common colors in addition to the background. Characters can also be displayed in extettded background color mode, which reduces by a factor of four the number of available characters 64 instead of , but multiplies by four the number of back- ground colors. You can then choose one of the 16 available colors for the character in the foreground and one of four background colors for the rest of the 8X8 character grid.

Pictures On Disk I recently purchased a Commodore One of the main reasons 1 chose the is because 1 heard of its easy-to- use graphics capabilities that are acces- sible from BASIC, I have written many hi-res programs and wish to save just the pictures to disk, preferably with the BSAVE command.

Is this possible? How could 1 do it? BLOAD and BSAVE were intended primarily for machine language programs, but they can also be used to load and save hi-res pictures, sprite shapes, character sets, function key definitions, and so on.

After i booted it for the first time and before I copied it, 1 managed to “nuke” the disk. Now, the first side still boots up, but the second side gives me a disk error and prints a whole bunch of question marks. What happened to my disk and how can!

You must turn on the computer or type BOOT while side one is in the disk drive. When the second side is in the drive, type DIR to see if you can get a directory. Then type DIR again.

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It says that defects in the media meaning a disk that doesn’t work are covered and you can return the disk for a replacement. Addressing Envelopes I have a Commodore 64 with a printer. I routinely use SpeedScript for letters with tractor-feed paper. I have trouble with regular single sheet paper and I have been unable to type enve- lopes. How do I do this? George A. Clark When you’re using SpeedScript with sin- gle sheets of paper, you should put the page-wait command at the top of the doc- ument.

You’ll be prompted for a format key; type the letter w for “wait between pages”. You may have to set the bottom margin a little higher as well.

When a page has printed, SpeedScript will print a line that reminds you to insert he next sheet. The Commodore printer has a paper sensor that causes the printer to stop when it thinks it has run out of paper. By using the page-wait command, you can avoid most problems caused by the sensor. The printer won’t print envelopes be- cause of the paper sensor. When you’ve lined up the envelope, the printer thinks it’s out of paper and refuses to continue.

Here’s a way to use your printer to address envelopes: Place a piece of paper between the flap and the main envelope. Carefully pick up the paper and envelope together and insert them top first into the printer. Advance the paper until the top of the envelope shows. The piece of paper you’ve inserted fools the paper sensor into thinking there’s more paper. Is there a reset command that will leave Fasttoad in place?

Brian Johnson We don’t usually respond to programming questions about specific commercial prod- ucts it’s best to address inquiries to the software company that produces the pro- gram , but within a week after we received your letter, two answers appeared in the “Feedback” mailbox, so this must be a common problem. Here they are: The Fastload manual states that the only way to use the car- tridge after it has been deactivated is to turn the 64 off and on again. The warm start is easy; all it does is re-enable the Fastload com- mands without clearing the screen or erasing any program in memory.

Just SYS The cold start is similar to SYS but also en- ables Fastload. Below is a program that does it. The variable S can be set to any value where there are 6 free bytes of memory.

Albert H. Cooper, III Thanks to both of you for the answer to this question. These two signals are available on the port labeled RGBI. You can use either a monochrome monitor, also called a green-screen or an amber-screen, or a composite color moni- tor such as the 1 or 1 to obtain 80 columns in monochrome. For the or , connect the monochrome input to the jack on the rear of the monitor labeled LUMA. Monochrome means one color, but you really have three colors: dark, light, and a gray shade that’s between the wo extremes.

To build your own cable, buy a length of coaxial cable, an RCA male plug, and a standard male nine-pin D connector Ra- dio Shack part The nine-pin connector is the.

Pin 1 of the RGBI connector is ground and pin 7 is the monochrome output. See page of the System Guide for a diagram, I which is arranged as if you were inside the computer looking out. Connect pin 1 to the outside portion of the coaxial cable and pin 7 to the inner wire. Batteries In- cluded, Microvations, and Cardco have such cables for sale ask your local Com- modore dealer for details. Some Commo- dore dealers also make their own cables.

I am interested in designing my own terminal programs and need infor- mation on this. It is without a doubt the most popular micro- computer protocol for uploading and downloading.

Data is sent in blocks of bytes, with a check- sum and other extra information which insures that each block is received correctly. XMODEM transfers always involve eight-bit bytes; if you are using a telecom- munications program, make sure that you are communicating with a word length of eight bits and no parity. Respectively, they are used to mark the start of a data block SOH , and to indicate when the transmission is com- plete EOT , when a block has been re- ceived successfully ACK , and when an error has occurred in receiving a block NAK.

The first 3 bytes of the block are called the header. The next 1 28 bytes contain the ac- tual data being transferred, and the last byte contains a checksum. When the block number exceeds , it flips over to zero not one. The third byte is he block com- plement, a value equal to the ones com- plement of the block number — the k Thenyin Chosen by Real Pilots s Thetotfghestbvoluatore of flying simulotions aren’t compuler buffs, rhoy’ra actuot pilofs ahd flight pro- Ir.

And when ftieso flyers lalk ritjthenficify and roallsm. His conclusion: “this simulalion is one that really does live up to its rool-iite counterparl I find AcBoJn completely absorbing and very oxciling. We regularty hear from mliito’Vondcommorcial Air-. From iMHicroProse; Ihe Hying simulators chosen not only by computer enthusiasts, but also by real pilofs Atoll X I. Together, the block mm- bermtd complvment alloto both computers to make sure they are synchronized deal- ing with the same block.

The data bytes may contain any sort of eight-bit data executable programs as well as ordinary ASCH text. The checksum is the eight-bit sumof all data bytes. It’s reset to zero at the begin- ning of each block, and flips over to zero whenever it exceeds Sender waits for an initial NAKfrom receiver. Receiver sends a NAK to initiate the transfer. Transfer of blocks. Sender transmits a bytc block consisting of a one-byle SOH character, one-byte block number, oyie-byte block numlyer complement, bytes of data, and a one-byte checksum.

If the receiver gets the block successfully, if sends an ACK lo say, “I got that block okay; send the next one. Sender transmits an EOT character to signal the end of the trans- mission. Since the transfer is largely automatic, each computer must have a means of aborting the process if too many errors occur. Sender aborts the transfer if it doesn’t receive an initiating NAK from the receiver after ten lO-second timeouts seconds total.

Receiver aborts the transfer if ten second timeouts occur without its receiving an SOH. Triinsfer of block. Sender transmits a byte block, then waits for a response from the receiver. Receiver waits for each block to arrive, sending a NAK every ten seconds if no SOH appears, and abort- ing transfer if ten such timeouts occur for any block. After receiving an SOH, the re- ceiver reduces the timeout interval to one second for each of the remaining bytes in the block, and sends a NAK to request retransmission if more than ten t-second timeouts occur for any single byte this 20 COMPUTEfs Gazette November covers the case where a block contains too few bytes.

If all bytes arrive on time, the receiver sends a NAK if the first byte is not an SOH or if the block number, com- plement, or checksum does not match.

If the receiver gets a duplicate block caused when the sender fails to recognize an ACK , it throws away the duplicate and sends an ACK to say, “I got that block al- ready; send the next one. If the sender’s EOT is lost, or the settder simply stops senditig, the re- ceiver eventually aborts because it experi- ences ten second titneouls without receiving anything. If the sender does not receive the receiver’s final ACK, it aborts when ten second timeouts occur. Note that if the very last black of data contains feuter than bytes, the sender “pads” the block with extra characters, often nulls ASCII 0.

Its major limitations arise because, understandably enough, it relies on eight -bit arithmetic. Programs designed for use with commercial infor- mation services often relax the timittg re- quirements increase the timeout periods as ivell, to allow for the delays caused by telephone packet-switching networks. More recent protocols such as Kermit transmit data in byte or even larger blocks.

Video Banks [ am in the process of writing an arcade- style game for the 64 which uses both sprites and hi-res grapliics. Unfortu- nately, 1 have more than 50 sprite shapes, so the shapes and the hi-res screen cannot be located in block zero.

The screen memory and character memory must be moved also. Do the sprite pointers change from to ? Can you help? Dean Kreutzer The VIC-U video chip handles all graph- ics, including sprites, hi-res screens, char- acter shapes, and screen memory for ordinary characters. If you have a character screen at locations , with sprite pointers at , and you move the video to bank 1, Ihe new sprite pointers will be lo- cated at 1S See details elsewhere in this issue.

And you don’t even have to leave your room. With them, they can bring the world to its knees. TItc U. Using their satellite yon can get into the complex with your computer. AH yon have to do is locate the combina- tions to the safe, find and open it, and get llie documents out. Sounds simple enough. Gii;ird patrols.

And something called.. Tlie Annihilator. Plus, your only map is the one you’ve got to make while not being discovered by all of tiie above. Your hacking skill is the only thing that can get you out. Bon Voyage. Rieific time. Hacker The fJoomsday Papers de. Atari ST and Macintosh computers. Atari and ST are trademarks of Atari Corp. Apple and Macintosh are trademarfcsof Apple Computer.

Aetiwsion is the registered trademark of Act ivision. It’s been hap- pening for years in the mainframe and minicomputer environ- ment, and is fast becoming the norm in the microcomputer programming world. As computers grow more powerful, soft- ware becomes more complex — and programmers often find themselves with too much of a good thing. Less than ten years later, Crawford is now working on a computer with K of RAM, de- signing a game that will operate only on computers with a minimum of K of memory.

That mush- rooming growth in available mem- ory is the trend that Crawford says has most dramatically affected his work and that of every other pro- gram designer today.

Running Away From Us At the same dme that he and other programmers are enjoying this ex- panded memory, Crawford issues a warning: “Basically, the hardware is running away from us,” To understand that cautionary note, consider Crawford’s own his- tory in the programming busi- ness — a tenure that surpasses that of most other programmers in dura- tion and success.

After working in the impossi- ble space of IK in , Crawford moved up to 8K in with his first commercial game, Tatiktics, then jumped to the then unheard- of 16K in with his popular game. Eastern Front. Another game, Excalibur, was created in to run on a machine with 48K, His re- cent highly acclaimed Balance of Power requires K of memory. And now he’s in the midst of de- signing a game that requires K to operate. In the days when he had litde RAM to work with, Crawford dis- covered what many other program- mers — professional and amateur hackers alike — have since learned.

When you want to squeeze a good program into a small space, you have to write your programs in ma- chine assembly language. So-called high-level languages like BASIC and Pascal are fairly large programs, which use up a lot of memory themselves. So, Craw- ford and many others studied ma- chine language, and discovered the thrill of communicating one-to-one with the computer.

While the task was not a simple one, the programs were small, fast, and elegant. But when Crawford began to climb up to computers with larger memories, he quickly found a dif- ferent problem.

I worked in Pascal. It’s difficult to imagine someone writing a K program in assembly language. Al- though people do it, it’s very hard. A few programmers noticed that the extra memory was making some programmers lazy — wasting all of that formerly precious memo- ry by writing sloppy code. But, says Crawford, that’s not the real problem. All of this extra memory is cheap.

It’s the quality of the program itself that’s suffering today, he adds. That’s not so much a problem. I o you waste paper clips in your office? Big deal,” says Crawford with a laugh. In earlier days, a 30K pro- gram might have had 12K of actual program the meat and 18K of data the meat extender.

Today, Craw- ford is seeing programs with 40K of real programming and K of meat extender. But, one that will change over time only slowly. Emerging Design Teams How are commercial program de- signers coping with this problem? For several good reasons, the enor- mous changes in available memory and much more powerful and flexi- ble computer systems have given rise to software design teams. Pro- grammers, graphic artists, testers, project directors — all work together to create the best possible program.

McDonald A et al. Visual display units and pregnancy: evidence from the Montreal survey. J Occ Med. Kruppa K et al. Birth defects and exposure to visual display terminals during pregnancy. Scand J Work Environ I lealth, I ISE. Working with VDUs. Bryant HE. Love EJ.

Video display terminal use and spontaneous abortion risk. Goldhaber MK et al. The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy.

Health aspects of work with visual display terminals. Bramwell RS. Davidson Mi. Visual display units VDUs. I – and reproductive health – the unresolved controversy. The Psychologist: Bull. Br Pysch Soc. Visual Display Units with evidence.

Paper ,E8. Early PMF exposure shows greater effects. VDT News City Centre. Stress and VDU Work. IOGHz wavelength 3cm produced a and whole live animals includ- toxic or organic, and repelling any decrease in the phosphorylation conver- ing man , has been the subject invaders by a variety of mechanisms still sion of sugar into phosphate factor in of increasing scientific curiosity during little understood. Here, too, experiments liver mitochondria, and an increase in res- recent decades.

This is partly because of with EM fields throw light on some of piratory control in kidney mitochondria. In such studies, yes there ing, immune defence, and the regulation any rate is hazardous, and can produce are effects, but what do they mean? The history of ionizing expo- Despite advances, we still do not sure limits has been in consequence one Initial Confusion know what controls the organic cell cycle of continuously falling values, from 10 The triglyceride story is another exam- in any multicellular creature.

Were it not for this, we would soon zling and no clear pattern has yet emerged up to a week, during which time they lose our familiar appearance, from face to to explain them consistently. As Szent- were exposed for up to one day to mag- fingerprints, and within a year perhaps be Gyorgyi, the Nobel prizewinning physi- netic fields of about l0’T at 45Hz much unrecognisable.

The subjects’ serum tral commands of the system are passed basic fact about life is still missing. Given the Without any such master plan, the spo- problems, the finding initially caused average speed of nervous conduction at radic results of research to date are like some concern’.

But applying and protein synthesis, which are somehow Such facts which emerge are often, in the same field to rhesus monkeys accomplished in about five separate peri- consequence, almost equally confusing. Delorge4 produced the reverse effect: a ods, totalling a mere minutes each significant but unrepeated decrease was night. Unit of biologi- found. And when Beischer himself tried The science of immunology was born cal dose given by the product of the the same thing out on mice in Its students realise that absorbed dose in rads and the relative results were also negatives, as were the there is a complex system of recognition biological efficiency of the radiation.

The influence of I. Though Smith and Best” say that a review by Grissett” Beischer’s for- mer colleague omits any reference to Beischer’s work, implying that skuldug- gery was afoot, it was in fact extensively reviewed by Bridges and Preache in their overview of the biological effects of power frequency fields for the IEEE, and the problems pointed out”.

One might suppose that if you imprison a few young naval officer dropouts in a small room for a week with nothing much to do, they might start to put on fatty tissue from an uncontrolled diet, or even start arguing and fighting among themselves to use up some of their energy, which is what hap- pened. As Beischer himself recorded at the time: “No effects were seen which could definitely be linked with the mag- netic field.

However, serum triglycerides in most subjects appear to be affected by some factor, or combination of factors, associated with the experimental protocol. The number of subjects is too small, how- ever, to include statistically other factors such as psycho -physiological reactions to forced changes in personal living habits, modified activities, restrictive diet and confinement”.

I personally doubt that any Y. In an Italian team Conti, Gigante, el al. Have we found the fifth Italian Congress of Radiobiology nucleus’. However, after removal of the a radio transmission mechanism in biolo- at Turin what he called modestly “a few powerful At m-‘ magnetic field, gy?

Using a cultured while the controls showed 92 out of 1 x Mastroianni look -alike from the Radiation T-lymphocyte cell line developed from positive results, these only showed 25 out Sciences Division, USAF School of mice CTLL-1 they exposed them to can- of “.

Aerospace Medicine at Texas, has been cer cells. Webb was more interested in the looking at the same problem from the for destruction. But when they did the action of microwaves. With a colleague higher radio -frequency point of view for same test while the T-cells were being A. Booth in he reported to over a decade. In he published a irradiated by microwaves at MHz the Naturel6 that at specific frequencies cell paper in “Rad Res”, the most important frequency used in America’s new phased- growth was significantly retarded, and scientific journal for radiation scientists, array early -warning system, PAVE- that temperature changes didn’t seem to which proved that radio frequencies can PAWS pulsed at 60Hz, the T-cells’ ability play a part in the effect.

Thus three fre- alter the immune system, at least at levels to kill the cancer cells was markedly quencies 66, 71, and 73GHz were found which slightly raise the temperature”. He inhibited. Later in they found the to slow the growth of cells, whereas also used mice, which he irradiated at same thing with power frequencies”: the 68GHz microwaves stimulated it.

This had the effect of increasing in the presence of an electromagnetic of Pharmacy at Illinois, was following up their core temperature by two degrees field, evidence perhaps that this ‘radio some early post-war work by J. It also induced acute transient interference’ was disrupting normal oper- Barnothy which found that, if mice were lymphopenia, that is to say loss of the ations in some way.

Paul Brodeur refers to placed in magnetic fields their cell divi- vital lymphocytes which alone stand Lyle’s work in a series of New Yorker sion mitosis was generally retarded.

The between us and infection. Though critics have attacked life -span of leucocyte in the blood is what Madeleine Barnothy had seen: there some other parts of his piece, which short, of the order of one day, she pointed was a subsequent relative increase in caused a good deal of interest at the time, out.

Should the magnetic field affect the splenic T- and B- lymphocytes and, more- detractors have remained ominously silent leucocyte -producing organs, the leucocyte over, these elevated levels were further about these immune system effects.

In following exposures were given at three -hourly s, Webb in the s, and of up her notion she accidentally reproduced intervals. But if the mice were warmed Madeleine and J. Barnothy in the s leukemic conditions in her subjects: simply by applying hot air to achieve the and s on whole animals had already applying a vertical magnetic field did same temperature rise, there was no effect found similar effects.

In , Mario decrease the number of circulating leuco- on the mouse T-cells. Liburdy’s tests were not in the test tube, they were in vivo: but do mice react the same as human beings might? The disturbing thing about Lyle’s field strengths they were at z, the frequen- cy of the domestic US electricity supply was that they were only at about 0.

Caution is counselled, however, because several factors affect this interpretation: I reduced cytotoxicity has so far been seen only in an in vitro preparation: 2 mouse, Interior negatively charged : rather than human cells were studied: 3 Section of cell membrane. EM fields cause calcium loss and collapse of the protein our observations involve only one clone molecules leading to breakdown of the cell membrane.

If subtle insults to the immune due to the influence of cultural levels, whether NI-EMFs affect human beings system by chronic exposure to appropriate subjective moods, consciousness, and deleteriously, such experiments also throw fields were cumulative, field strengths other environmental factors of the sub- light on life’s deepest processes, and in needed for a significant long-term inhibi- jects.

In contrast, the WBC phagocytosis particular begin to suggest that multicellu- tion of specific cells might be less than is an objective index of non-specific lar animals actually use some form of those observed in the short-term assays immune function”.

Lyle’s results have since been replicat- Bioelectricity. It was his Alberts, Bray and the team who devel- same as events in the live body. So are research into the effects of radar on Polish oped a recent massive textbook on cellular there any equally conclusive results, and servicemen which caused something of a biology”.

The team includes the famous is the immune competence of whole live shock in epidemiological circles, by Jim Watson, who with Francis Crick and a animals also affected by magnetic -field reporting that, in a large-scale survey, London University team first described exposure at those minuscule levels?

Whatever the details, the triggering work, particularly from the eastern bloc’. Chiang and G. Yao, to salmonella in mice, rabbits, and guinea begun, DNA replication will continue from the Microwave Institute of Zhejiang pigs immunized following several months until all of the cell’s DNA is replicated”. Medical University, is nothing if not of exposures to 10GHz microwaves at Watching the million linked laconic.

Unfortunately, the conditions nucleotides in a human chromosome start “We investigated the effects of expo- of irradiation, time of daily sessions and to uncoil, as if in response to a mysterious sure to environmental magnetic fields in even the period of exposure were not signal, and with a startling speed spill out subjects.

Neutrophil phagocytosis described”. Visual reaction current spate of salmonella enteritises out- itself. The spilled nucleotides of DNA time was prolonged. When one considers that an electron microscope would fill an A3 some high -intensity exposure groups.

NI EMFs may affect the central nervous four-hour irradiation of the hen and egg For over a decade Reba Goodman, and immune systems in man”. Thus runs alike by power-frequency light and heat, who is always ready to listen to critics of their abstract.

In she. The subjects were living and work- Most of the acceptable information on immunological responses to low-level long-term exposure of experimental ani- presented three papers Bioelectromagnetics Society’s annual at. Szmigielsky cites four communicate their research progress”. Again, the power densi- 0. On the other ties and amplitudes used were minute: 0. Why and how do these elec-. Meanwhile an Austrian researcher, place. These scaffolding poles are on its head and discovered that cells them- absent or virtually absent in cancer selves give off ultra -weak photon emis- sions.

Using cucumber cells, he found that ” Ross Adey saw a cells Are the dying cells communicating positively charged ing site on the cell’s nucleus wall and the fact of their demise by minimum – starts to grow outward, mainly at the posi- power radio -telemetry to some distant calcium from cells tively charged end, towards the negatively charged interior of the plasma membrane.

Hospital have been addressing this enigma for nearly twenty years. His in this way. What happens when the cell mem- minute potential difference which acts as brane is exposed to any alternating EM an electrical barrier for the plasma mem- field is still a mystery, but in Susan brane, can signal to each other at a local Bawin and Ross Adey saw a tell -tale level. A similar result with human mononuclear the microtubules breaking down, leaving a surfeit of calcium inside the cell, which was then expelled?

Without their vital cies as are detected in EEG records cells was obtained by Stephen Cleary at supplies of calcium the cells subsequently 25Hz , has an inhibiting or sometimes Virginia’s Commonwealth University, risked becoming neoplastic, or cancerous.

In this case they used In following up this mysterious efflux of including the vital activity of cell division MHz CW the frequency of all calcium from brain tissue cells, Ross and protein synthesis.

Adey found that threads of protein from As Reba Goodman points out, an anal- When they examined the cells after one, the cell walls can sense weak electric ysis of the specific cellular responses to three and five days, they found that there fields and transmit them to the inside of NI-EMFs, based on an electrochemical had been a highly significant degree of the cell; a cellular aerial of a sort.

Adey also found that channels in a cell’s plasma membrane and another mitogen. This implies Blank, BBA, , predicts that intercellular signals, if carried by that the charged surfaces involved in Cellular Breakdown high -frequency carriers, must be coherent. The when phosphorylation is interfered with variety of mechanisms and models energy necessary to convey that message by protein kinase effectively enzyme offered.

Currently interest is centred on must come front within the cell itself, activators “. They found that when a cell cell membranes and the transport of sig- claims Frohlich. Frohlich points out quoting minutes. If a cell was given the protein brane presents a formidable electric barri- Bullock. The same effect between the interior negatively charged As if anticipating the central nature of could be achieved with the help of a mod- and the exterior positively charged is morphogenetic control the way in which ulated microwave field.

However, in three groups of Inside the cell there are microtubular the electroencephalogram. It RF field, pulsed at Certainly the human brain is organised spatially so that the highest and strongest.

Wilder Penfield and Karl Lashley found r. Not long before then, Hans Berger had discovered oscilla- tions from the brain at 10Hz’, and rl’ Cazamalli claimed to have detected very much higher frequencies”. Without actually saying so, all these specialist researchers into the bio-effects of EM energy are being forced to admit a that cells intercommunicate coherently and b that artificial EM fields interfere with that communication system.

It is understandable that the myriad separate cells which comprise any multi – cellular organism are co-ordinated central- ly; indeed, if it had not been postulated one would have had to identify some sim- Low voltage, high current cable runs can induce large fields at bedroom height. The backbone of any such co-ordinating system, moreover, group, unlike the controls, had suffered would have to embody a code or flag of some sort unique to that individual collec- minute lesions of cerebellar Purkinje ” The DNA macromolecule, – In Gadsdon and Emery examined locations of SIDS unique, as police pathologists now know, to every single creature, – has to be that the post -mortal brains of over one hun- dred human infants who had been the vic- victims, electric code.

If cellular biology points the way to tims of sudden infant death syndrome or cot death”. They found similar damage in field strengths EM signalling from the test tube and petri dish, the very same message is emerging the majority of cases: sudden loss of the fatty sheath of the corpus callosum the were at least four from live animal studies. Most protein synthesis, as Haider and Oswald showed”, connection between the cortical layers of times normal the two lobes of the cerebellum had led occurs during sleep, and particularly that to coagulation of its fatty tissue round the domestic levels kind of sleep known as ‘paradoxical sleep’.

It is called paradoxical because blood vessels of the lateral ventricles. One study by Eckert in the same year’ without exception” sleep scientists could not understand why, had pointed out that in Hamburg, West when the body was so inert and “dead to Germany and Philadelphia in the USA. Could it he that ways. Following up these studies I too to the new location it would unexpectedly the brain itself was communicating found that at the actual cot locations of be found dead, with the only prior indica- instructions for the mitosis and protein SIDS victims, electric field strengths were tion a few snuffles, suggestive of minor synthesis which took place at such times?

Could this be evidence Measuring the fields in the new cot EMFs and Cot Deaths that the neonatal brain’s transmission sys- location, I would typically Before one can examine such specula- tem had overloaded in trying to compete find electric field levels of around tions it is important to imagine what hap- with an interfering signal?

Hans Ame Hanssen deserves further investigation. Often the off the electricity at the mains would col- of Gothenburg has devoted most of the source was obvious; for example, an lapse this field completely.

His classic experi- infant would characteristically sleep in the A study by two US researchers, Barnes ment placed two groups of young mam- parental bedroom for the first few week and Wachtel”, this year established that mals from the same litters underneath after return from the maternity hospital.

So the cot -death protected by a Faraday cage. After several ly. Meanwhile, a nursery room might typi- infants had been chronically exposed to months the animals were killed and subse- cally be prepared, and quite naturally the fields many times the norm prior to death.

Ayotte et al. Suppression of T-Lymphocyte unwittingly linking cot death to electric cytotoxicity following exposure to 60 Iz sinusoidal electric fields. Paul Brodeur. The Zapping of America. Mario Lenzi. A repon of a few recent experiments on the bio-. Radial: Webb and A. Absorbtion of microwaves by Another case was reported in the Lancet organisms.

Nature The UK allows microwave expo- Barnothy and J. Biological Effects of Magnetic of an infant found unexpectedly dead alter sure orders of magnitude greater Fields. Medical Physics 3. Yearbook Pubs.. RF radiation alters the immune system: Modulation than those existing in Russia and of T. In the US, and at levels which have tence by hypenhermic radiation. Radiation Research. Kaune and R. Comparison of the coupling of deaths simply to overheating. A little -reported study by Nancy Birndecrrnntag netics.

Considerable concern has been Yao it:ls et al itals. Health effects of envi- Wertheimer also adds weight to the possi- shown in the five deaths that have ronmental electromagnetic fields. Binelertricirv, 8 1 : bility’: she found that foetal loss among occurred at the Royal Signals Modem Bioelectricity Dekker. Stanislaw Szmigielski.

Marian Bielec et al. Immunologic and more frequently in homes heated by ceil- vern, all from brain tumours, giv- cancer -related aspects of exposure to low-level microwave and radio frequency fields in modem bioelectricity Marino. New York. Since amniotic fluid maintains Physiological mechanisms of action of elec- national average.

The MoD has tromagnetic fields. Bruce Alberts, Dennis Braylitals et a1 itals. Garland Publishing. Reba Goodman. Lin -Xiang Wei et al. Relationship of tran- cases can he eliminated. Ceiling -cable irradiation. Blank and Reba Goodman. Two pathways in the electro- blanket that has been installed in the ceil- exposure from airport radars indi- magnetic stimulation of biosynthesis.

BEMS Ilth. AZ Fritz Albert Popp. On the coherence of ultrawcak photon emis- flowing at the outer edges of the cable One residential building within sion from living tissues. Kilmister ed. Disequilibrium and pattern is unbalanced, just as it is in elec- line -of -sight exposure from radars Self Organisation, D.

Fletcher, Anna- Marie Maninezlitalsl et al itals. As a result strong electric at two airfields had a cancer mor- Regulation of cell -cell communication by phosphorylation: a pos- and magnetic fields are generated. BEMS 11th Ann. Animals seem sensitive to electric control group. Darragh Foley -Nolan, P. In vitro fields, both natural and artificially gener- These. BEMS 11th. Li -Ming Liu et al. Modulation of mammalian cell highly intelligent and fast -reacting crea- suggested link between microwa- proliferation by in vitro isothermal radio -frequency radiation.

BEMS 1th Ann. However, they 1. Alcorta itals et al itals. Neoplastically beyond the capability of human beings. In are supported by a number of solid transformed cells contain few stress fibers. Bawin and W. Ross Adey. Sensitivity of calcium binding they can also he sensitive to EM fields linkage.

The results of the studies in cerebral tissue to weak environmental electric fields oscillating at low frequency Prm. Ilerben Frohlich. The biological effects of microwaves and related questions. Even Wireless World. Neurosciences Rea Frog. Ross Adey and Susanne Bawin. Brain interactions with weak electric and magnetic fields. References MIT Press. The biological action of ultrasound and Raphael EIul. Large regions of the brain can oscillate superhigh frequency electromagnetic fields in the three centimeter coherently.

Aranyi er al. A pilot study of the interaction of Penftels and E. AD Chicago ill.. Brain Search for effects of z Fulton and J. The representation of magnetic fields on live tryglicerides in mice. Naval Aerospace Res. Cell comp. De Lorge. A psychobiological study of rhesus monkeys Hans Berger.

User das Elekirenkephalogram des htenschen. USN Rept. Dietrich Beischer. Grissetgitals et a1 itals. Exposure of Freidrich Cazzrmuli. Repon of high frequency oscillations in man to magnetic fields alternating at ELF Bureau of Medicine and the brain.

Grey Walter. The Living Brain. Pelican Books. Krumpe and M. Evaluation of the health of Haider and I. Protein Synthesis enhanced during of Loudon public school for hoes, and to Report for Naval Research Unit No. Paradoxical sleep. I lansson. The continuing medical surveillance of personnel ly induced by electric fields.

Brain Res. Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Naval Aerospace Medical Research Gadsdon and 1. Emery Fatty change in the brain Library. NAMRL Electromagnetic Man. UK Egon Ecken. Plotzlicher and uncrwancier Tod in 9. Biological effects of electric and magnetic fields Kleinskindesaher and elekiromagnetische Felder. Macfarlane h. Sudden Bridges and M.

Biological influences of power Infant Death: Patterns. Open Books the psychology division , specialising in frequency electric fields. A tutorial review from a physical and Publishing, Somerset IE 69 9 : 1 Frank Barnes. Itoward Wachtel et al. Use of wiring configura- II. Giganielitals el al itals. Reduced mitogenic tions and wiring codes for estimating externally generated electric Currently, Mr Coghill is working as an stimulation of human lymphocytes by extremely low frequency and magnetic fields.

Biaelenrnniugnem s. Ft:BS 1 : Chandralinds et allitals. Sudden infant P Schecter er al. Suppression of T-Iymphocyte death syndrome and water beds. NEIM Annals of Radiation. Power Transistors. Applications include diagnosis of both hardware and software faults, and investigation of any problems encountered with handshaking protocols. No similar software comes near the price. P free. Henson Ltd. Finchley, and Spice.

Age is a new product for the IBM range which provides facilities for transient and Foune analysis as well as D. London, N12 8JG. Ilford, Essex. IG3 9NL. Telephone THE previous articles have ting exposure levels rests with the given an overview of the state Health and Safety Executive HSE who of our published knowledge base these on scientific advice from the regarding possible health NRPB.

They, in turn, take considerable effects of alternating electric notice of advice from the Medical and magnetic fields at low levels. The Board will issue further appear to be evidence for athermal bio- advice as the results and conclusions of logical effects, particularly of magnetic such research and studies become avail- fields, at all levels of biological organi- able, and intends to publish a review of zation.

However, the experimental evi- the existing biological and epidemiolog- dence is often statistically weak and ical evidence in the near future”. The 11 proves difficult to reproduce. It is not repon was approved in November This list consists mainly j-‘,Tis :Ill iro El tinuous exposure to 50Hz magnetic of lists of other ‘official’ bodies’ reports,.

In r Guidelines has raised this to 2mT. UK one. No explanation is given for this effects of EM fields had been deliberate- change of view. In the UK, the responsibility for set- published its promised literature review.

Work in these areas is often funded directly or indirectly by the military or large firms with vested interests. Controversial work is often classified or just stopped. Let us consider some specific examples. In , Dr Milton Zaret was one of. According to Zaret, exposure to either thermal or non -thermal radia- tion can cause cataracts, which can -tt J remain latent for months or years.

Zaret Lake, Wisconsin, site. When Beischer tried to talk to other US official bodies about this work, he was removed from rl his post as a research team leader at the lJ US Navy’s Pensacola Research Labs and – his previously unclassified work was 4 subsequently classified.

Dr Beischer had r , been one of the US Navy’s principal investigators since the late s. At the time, Becker had been appointed to the civil- ian advisory committee looking at the possible health effects of the Sanguine transmissions. The frequencies were 45Hz and 75Hz and, after considering – the evidence, the committee unanimous-.

Becker’s crime was to establish a clear link between power lines and health hazards. His punishment was sci- entific exile. Now, at 59, he is enjoying a forced early retirement, despite his world- wide reputation for original research work. Mrs Yannon charged that RCA was responsible for the wrongful death of her husband due to long-term microwave exposure. Yannon died in at the age of 62; in his final months, he lost almost all his sight, memory, speech and motor co- ordination.

The workers’ compensation panel had earlier ruled that “There was a direct causal relationship between Yannon’s exposure to microwave radi- ation during his employment and his subsequent disability, all of which ulti- mately resulted in his death”. Its historical record, however. This is the only study they have published The UK: new houses are built under power lines following up the work of Nancy Wertheimer et al.

Prior to my involve- between childhood cancers and 50Hz York State and Becker found that the ment with this public hearing I was sup- Sweden. Tomenius, first Navy would not admit to possessing ported by several granting agencies to announced in and 60Hz USA their data or the committee report. Ile do my research work.

I had access to the Wertheimer et al. Indeed, fy. The power companies. In addition we were subject attributable to power- frequency magnet- cleared electromagnetic fields as provid- to administrative harassment by the ic fields of around nT and above.

The line was given agency for which I was basically work- The Wertheimer and Tomenius stud- the go-ahead. To quote Robert Becker ing. The entire circum- Leeds study and so it would seem sensi-. The as there should have been in the urban background 50Hz magnetic fields were highest field of nT was reported as roans that carried their heavy under- likely to exceed nT.

When the study was pub- the data presented in the report? Firstly transmission line. This agrees with my lished, it showed that people living in that the magnetic fields were only calcu- findings.


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