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Throughout the process, feedback in various guises may or may not have a further effect on the manipulation of the news report. In Galtung and Ruge identified factors used in the selection of news in the news flow process, and subsequent studies e. Boyd-Barrett, ; Fenby, ; Friedland, ; quoted by Sreberny-Mohammadi, determined that these and other “gatekeeping factors” were predominantly in the hands Western news agencies, particularly in the US.

This development did not go far and today international news flow is no more symmetrical than 30 years ago, with the US still at the centre of news output Kleinsteuber, He referred to the person who selected the food as the “gatekeeper”, adding that the theory of gates “holds not only for food channels but also for the travelling of a news item through certain communication channels in a group” Lewin, In , White used this idea in his study of the selection processes involved in the flow of news from the source to the audience past the various filters or “gatekeepers” White, This made him the first scholar to study gatekeeping in the journalistic sense of the word Zhou, White specifically studied what he called “the last ‘gatekeeper'” — a wire-editor, referred to as Mr Gates, who was responsible for the selection of national and international news for the front and jump pages of the newspaper White, This study was replicated in by American communication scientist Paul B.

However, the nature of the news had changed, as in the press was more interested in hard news and international conflicts than was the case in Gieber focused on reporters and their sources as two gatekeepers in the channel of news flow, but he, like White, came to the conclusion that the news is “very subjective”, stating that news does not have an independent existence and that it is in fact the product of the members of a “news-gathering bureaucracy” Gieber, , News, Gieber declared, is what the media make it.

Extrapolating factors identified as conducive to attracting attention on a psychological level, Galtung and Ruge postulated eight hypotheses about news selection. These factors were regarded as internationally applicable, but the authors granted that the selection of events as news may also be influenced by culture-bound factors, which for the Norwegian community included reference to elite nations, to elite people, to people, and to something negative. For example, in his study of domestic news German-born American sociologist and educator Herbert Gans found that journalists use a range of interrelated considerations to determine the newsworthiness of a story.

Gans also referred to interesting stories, which generally are what he called “people stories”. Whereas “important” stories often tend to be “bad”, “interesting” stories are generally “good” or at least “light”. Stories concerning sex, show business, human interest, animals, an unfolding drama, or offering opportunities for humorous treatment, entertaining photographs or witty headlines.

This includes press conferences of Iraqi Minister of Information, Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf, also known as “Comical Ali” because of the way he “bemused the West with his litany of claimed victories over coalition troops, and amused Arabs with his bottomless Figure 1.

Iraqi Information dictionary of insults”. Stories concerning powerful individuals, organisations or institutions. Figure 2. George W. Stories about issues, groups and nations perceived to be relevant to the audience. South Africa is a remarkably Americanised country, especially in consumerism and the arts Cuthbertson, According to Bush there is “a vital and strong relationship” between the two countries The White House, , making matters of concern to the US important to South Africa.

This, however, did not necessarily Figure 3. Stories with particular positive overtones such as rescues or cures. One of the most significant events during the war was the now controversial rescue of Army Pfc Jessica Lynch from the Saddam Hospital in Nasiryia, which prompted newspapers world-wide to wax lyrical about both her bravery and the heroism of her rescuers Lamprecht, a Figure 4.

Stories with particular negative overtones, such as conflict or tragedy. In times of conflict, definitions of “good” or “bad” news depends on point of view. Few of these images were published, as the Pentagon instructed US military bases that “there will be no arrival ceremonies for, or media coverage of, deceased military personnel returning to or departing from Ramstein Germany airbase or Figure 5.

A rare photograph of Dover Del. These are the most important cargo plane at Kuwait ports for the returning remains of soldiers who International Airport. Tami died in Iraq. Such images were the source of Silico, the contract-worker who great joy amongst people harbouring anti- photographed the coffins, was American sentiments Die Burger, b Stories that are perceived as sufficiently significant either in the numbers of people involved or in potential impact.

The “shock and awe” attack was newsworthy not only because of the governmental and media hype beforehand, but also for the more than 1 missiles and bombs that were exploded by the US military forces on selected targets in and around Baghdad on the night of 20 March Rapport, a. Figure 6. Although president George W.

Bush already enjoys “important person” status in terms of newsworthiness, his Thanksgiving visit to his troops in Baghdad Lamprecht, b:6 was a fail-safe move to ensure wide media coverage, especially because of the clandestine nature of the visit.

Figure 7. President Bush serves his troops Photo: Associated Press, a. Global coverage of Gulf War II shows clear differences in the news agendas. Figure 8. Newspapers of 22 March Newseum, Stories about subjects already in the news. Figure 9. The continued search for weapons of mass destruction Photo: CNN, She condensed and integrated these models into a detailed model of gatekeeping, which agreed with McNelly that news flow through various channels to news organisations, such as wire services, newspapers and television networks, where the messages are either rejected or selected and adapted before it is passed on to the next person or organisation.

Recognising the complexity of the gatekeeping process, Shoemaker acknowledged the distinct traits and characteristics of the gatekeeper — people in a news organisation who select and shape news messages, such as reporters, news editors, sub- editors and editors.

Figure Intra-individual gatekeeping processes illustration redrawn as in Shoemaker, As seen in Figure 11, these reporters must comply with the limitations of their news routines, and with their employers’ priorities Shoemaker, For example, when veteran Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus questioned whether the US government had proof that Saddam was hiding weapons of mass destruction, his editors refused to publish his story and only did so when forced by assistant managing editor Bob Woodward Kurtz, Reporters accused the Washington Post of printing government views on the front page, while anything contradicting the administration was placed “on A18 on Sunday or A24 on Monday” Kurz, Gatekeeping within an organisation is embedded in communication organisational characteristics illustration redrawn as in Shoemaker, The demands of influential forces outside news organisations are equally important in news selection Shoemaker, In Iraq embedded reporters had to comply with the Pentagon ground rules, which prohibited the publication of information on e.

Because Fox News correspondent Geraldo Rivera broke these rules by drawing a map in the sand indicating his location with the st Airborne unit relatively to Baghdad, as well as their destination, he was asked by the Pentagon to voluntarily leave Iraq Plante, In this section of the model, Shoemaker also made provision for the “groupthink” phenomenon first described by psychologist Irving Janis in , who defined it as a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.

This phenomenon is of particular interest in coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom, as two prominent US newspapers, namely Washington Post Kurtz, and The New York Times both used the word “groupthink” when apologising for their erroneous reporting on weapons of mass destruction as justification for the war on Iraq.

As indicated in Figure 12, surviving news items that were fashioned to suit the needs and characteristics of the organisation, are subsequently either transmitted directly to the audience, or passed to a next news organisation, where it is subjected to a similar series of gatekeeping procedures Shoemaker, Gatekeeping between organisations is embedded in social system ideology and culture and is influenced by social and institutional factors illustration redrawn as in Shoemaker, The Sunday Times had their own unilateral reporter in Baghdad Schoonakker, , which cut down considerably the number of gates and the consequent sifting and alterations to the messages.

All the other newspapers, however, relied solely on agency material, which some newspapers adapted to their readership, while others, such as The Citizen, published wire reports without rewriting them. As indicated by the feedback loops in Figure 12, news organisations do not act in isolation, but form part of the ideology and social system in which they function, and their news agenda is therefore subjected to sanctioning by their audience as representatives of this community Shoemaker, They are also under pressure from external institutions such as advertisers, shareholders, and government bodies.

The extent of these pressures can best be illustrated by the dismissal of Pulitzer Prize winning news correspondent Peter Arnett by US broadcaster NBC after he made critical comments about the US war effort when interviewed on Iraqi television Sales, Initially NBC defended Arnett, but within 24 hours yielded to outside pressure to fire their only correspondent in Baghdad.

While one cannot allege that General Electric in any way perpetuated the war, it would not be unreasonable to assume that a company would strive to protect its relationship with such an important client Deserano, ; Ireland, Through selection and the assignment of salience by e.

This ability was first recognised by newspaper columnist Walter Lippmann, who referred to “the pictures in our heads” in his book Public Opinion Lippmann, : “The only feeling that anyone can have about an event he does not experience is the feeling aroused by his mental image of that event” — an image to a large extent created by the news media. This view was confirmed in by US sociologists Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert Merton who referred to one of the mass media’s roles in society as “status- conferral” function, which means that the mass media confer status on public issues, persons, organizations, and social movements.

Common experience as well as research testifies that the social standing of persons or social policies is raised when these command favorable attention in the mass media Examining this idea in his book The press and foreign policy, which dealt with the media’s role in the foreign policy decision-making process, Bernard Cohen, a political scientist from the University of Wisconsin, observed that the press “may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about” : It is here, in the description of the political environment and the suggestion of the policy alternatives that give the best promise of managing the environment, that we shall find the press playing such an important role in current thinking about foreign policy For most of the foreign policy audience, the really effective political map of the world — that is to say, their operational map of the world — is drawn by the reporter and the editor, not by the cartographer.

It must be noted that the term “agenda”, according to McCombs , is not intended to imply that a news organisation has a premeditated, often evil, “agenda” that it pursues relentlessly, but is merely a descriptive term, referring to the result over time of numerous day-to-day decisions by all the gatekeepers in a news organisation, from the reporter in the field to the sub-editor and the editor. That the line-up of issues on the public agenda was very similar to the line-up of issues that was in the new coverage of the previous month McCombs, According to McCombs newspapers provide various cues about the salience of a particular news event through the placement of a report on a page, the page it is printed on, and the size of the headline, for example.

When the same cues regarding the importance of an issue recur over a period of days, weeks, months, or even longer, it becomes possible to identify the agenda of a news organisation.

Since that first study almost four decades ago, and more than empirical studies later Weaver, , the agendasetting theory has expanded into five distinct stages McCombs, ; McCombs, The idea of first level agendasetting resulted from the theory initiated by McCombs and Shaw after their Chapel Hill research project which dealt with the prominence or salience of objects: “public issues, political candidates, other public figures. It could be any set of objects that you might be interested in” McCombs, Other first level agendasetting studies include those by Winter and Eyal , Iyengar and Kinder , Eaton and Brosius and Kepplinger When people are in an unfamiliar situation, they experience a “need for orientation” which makes them turn to the news media to orient themselves McCombs, Highly knowledgeable people will be less likely to be influenced by the news agenda, but interested people who have little knowledge would have a strong need for orientation, resulting in a very strong correspondence between the media agenda and those people’s opinions about an issue.

In recent years, studies of agendasetting increasingly moved away from first level agendasetting, or the media telling the audience ”what to think about”, to focus on second level or attribute agendasetting, which means the media is telling the audience “how to think about” issues or objects Sheafer, Stated differently, while the first level of agendasetting refers to the transmission of object salience, a second level of agendasetting involves the transmission of attribute salience, which in fact may guide people in what to think McCombs, An “object” refers to for example topics, issues, and persons, which may each have various attributes, i.

Just as objects may be presented by the news media as more or less important, so too may attributes vary in salience, which makes them equally powerful as agendasetting tools. Perhaps a quick way to summarize the difference between the basic agenda- setting effect, and what’s now come to be called attribute agendasetting, is in terms of Lippman’s phrase “the pictures in our heads”. The object agenda, in effect, says “What are the pictures about?

What are they pictures of? What does this really look like? Second level agendasetting studies e. Empirical studies, however, do not draw a clear distinction between cognitive and affective attributes Sheafer, Other recent studies on second level agendasetting include those by Scheufele , Golan and Wanta and Kiousis This means that the salience of an object or its attributes in the stories published by one medium will be mirrored by other media.

Once it became obvious that media reports influence the public’s perception of the importance of various issues, media researchers wanted to know who is responsible for the media’s agenda McCombs, This is a complex question with many answers: most importantly, the media’s agenda is shaped by news values and journalistic tradition. The agenda is also shaped by outside influences, such as various sources: press spokespersons, government officials, politicians, and the ubiquitous public relations agencies.

However, an agenda is also shaped by the whole mix of different media – the relationship that exists, for instance, between blogs and news media, both Internet and traditional Weaver Indiana University , Maxwell E. Although Weaver et al. Kinder associated the effects of television agendasetting with perceptions of the US President “in a demonstration of what some cognitive psychologists have called priming — making certain issues or attributes more salient and more likely to be accessed in forming opinions” Weaver, Priming is similar to first level agendasetting, but goes further by addressing the effect of these agendas on the audience’s perceptions of an issue Lee, It begs the question: “What are the consequences of creating these pictures in the public’s mind?

According to this view, people will therefore make evaluations or judgements based on what they regard as being more important, or what is discussed most in the media, as this information is the easiest to access. It must be noted that some authors disagree with the notion that priming is an extension of agendasetting, e. This relationship is apparent from McCombs’s definition, which describes framing as the selection of a restricted number of thematically related attributes for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular object is discussed.

A generally accepted definition of framing is, however, problematic. Although there exists abundant literature on framing — some articles are indexed in Communication Abstracts for the period to Weaver, — analysts differ in their interpretation of the concept when dealing with the different approaches to and theories of frames, framing devices, models of framing, framing analyses and framing effects Kinder, Rather, frame analyses are a number of related, even though sometimes partially incompatible methods for the analysis of discourses Scheufele, American sociologist Erving Goffman is one of the first scholars to define framing, which he explains as the many ways in which the media create the context within which the audience may “locate, perceive, identify and label” world affairs, in other words, to make sense of those events.

Columbia University Journalism and Sociology Professor Todd Gitlin points out that the largely invisible frames organises the world for journalists, who report on world events, by enabling them to quickly and routinely process large amounts of information. Conversely, frames also help the audience to understand the world. On the contrary, some form of media frame is essential to the understanding of the world — without it, much of what happens and what is said would remain “mere talk and incomprehensible sounds” Tuchman, Frames, then, define problems — determine what a causal agent is doing and costs and benefits, usually measured in terms of cultural values; diagnose causes — identify the forces creating the problem; make moral judgments — evaluate causal agents and their effects; and suggest remedies — offer and justify treatments for the problem and predict their likely effects.

In order to analyse frames present in coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom, it is necessary to decide on an applicable frame. This is rather problematic, as just like the definition of framing is vague in literature Scheufele, ; Hyun, ; Kinder, , so is the identification of frames: “We are not told how to identify a frame” Carvalho, This “conceptual conundrum” often leaves it to the researcher to “propose their own definition of frames and approaches to framing study before they begin their research” Hyun, Alternative frames are represented by a single presentation of a sentence or two, reminders of how an issue might be understood.

This study focuses on how international news flows and not on the effects of the news on the audience. Therefore, framing devices are particularly important to this research. Coalition forces were characterised as freedom loving, working hard to avoid civilian casualties and seeking to protect religious diversity Saddam Hussein and his sons, like a gang of Hollywood rustlers, were given forty eight hours to get out of town Knight, 1, There are many reasons for the use of the story frame in the production of news.

It is employed to attract attention by provoking feeling in the audience, “inducing him to feel a sense of personal identification” Lippmann, It is also a consequence of the mass media’s continuous need for more news Boorstin, To satisfy this need, “bogus dramas and humbug heroes” are created which spawn an “empty world of celebrity” Hanson, We expect new heroes every season, a literary masterpiece every month, a dramatic spectacular every week, a rare sensation every night Boorstin, Jamie Shea, NATO spokesman during the Balkan war, told business leaders in Switzerland, in a talk named Selling a conflict — the ultimate PR challenge, that he credited his successful media campaign in the Balkans to giving the public what they loved: “daily soap operas with good characters”.

Whenever things grew quiet on the war front, he used the time “to explain again who’s the good guy and who’s the bad guy”. The usefulness of the story frame was tested by Massachusetts Institute of Technology political scientist Alan J. Berinsky and Kinder in their study of the decision making process. They found that citizens understand particular event sequences when they can organize the relevant information into coherent stories.

Political leaders, analysts and government officials tend to frame their views and statements — to be transferred to the public through all the various sectors of mass media — with the audience in mind, thereby shaping the way the public process and store information that would contribute to their understanding of politics.

In a study on how people make sense of politics, Berinsky and Kinder found that when information is framed as a good story, the audience’s understanding of the data changes, which in turn appears to shape opinion. These frames do not need to present strong arguments for one side or another in order to change public opinion. Small and subtle differences in the presentation of information can sometimes do the trick.

Berinsky and Kinder declares that [a] good frame is at its heart a good story. To understand why some frames succeed and others fail, we need to understand what makes an effective story. According to Kinder [p]eople know what makes a good story, and this knowledge influences how they understand text and how they represent such text in their minds Evidence is unscrambled.

Causal and intentional relations are established. Gaps are filled. Plot turns are identified. Thus, the story frame is a useful device to create desired perceptions about current issues, and its utilisation as a strategic tool is advocated by US military scholars William Casebeer and James A.

Because the story frame has become a weapon in the hands of government officials and military strategists who use the media to disseminate carefully constructed tales Payne, , it became imperative to determine what the elements of a good story are.

As such, Propp’s schema will be used in this study to demarcate the story frame to be used in the analysis of Operation Iraqi Freedom media coverage. He broke down folktales into their “small component parts” and identified eight character types Table 1 and 31 basic elements or “functions” Table 21, next page in the stories Propp, , Not all the elements were present in all the folktales, but those that were, always recurred in the same order.

Table 1. Propp’s 31 basic functions Propp, 1. One of the members of a family absents himself from home. An interdiction is addressed to the hero. The interdiction is violated 4. The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance. The villain receives information about his victim. The villain attempts to deceive his victim as to capture him or his belongings. The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps his enemy. The villain causes harm or injury to a member of a family.

One member of a family either lacks something or desires to have something. Misfortune or lack is made known; the hero is approached with a request or command; he is allowed to go or he is dispatched. The seeker agrees to or decides upon counteraction. The hero leaves home. The hero is tested, which prepares him to receive either a magical agent or helper. The hero acquires the use of a magical agent. The hero is transferred, delivered, or led to the whereabouts of an object of search.

The hero and the villain join in direct combat. The hero is branded. The villain is defeated. The initial misfortune or lack is liquidated. The hero returns. The hero is pursued. Rescue of the hero from pursuit. The hero, unrecognized, arrives home or in another country. A false hero presents unfounded claims. A difficult task is proposed to the hero.

The task is resolved. The hero is recognized. The false hero or villain is exposed. The hero is given a new appearance. The villain is punished. The hero is married and ascends the throne. When these elements are distilled into a simpler form, the most common story told is that of a villain who harms a victim, prompting the hero to go on a quest. The hero receives a magic agent from a donor, which he uses to defeat the villain in order to right the initial wrong and ultimately to win the hand of the princess Propp, While these stories have enduring appeal as fairytales, they also form the backbone of popular cinema.

During Operation Iraqi Freedom the author, as an ordinary member of the global audience, was struck by the strong “story-like” coverage by the media. In this case, President George W. Bush is the indisputable hero. The Wall Street Journal described Bush as not only of strong moral character himself, but … he actually believes in things He sees rights and wrongs … and has a clear vision of what is and is not in America’s interest and does not hesitate to act accordingly Du Pont, In his January State of the Union address, Bush pledged: Whatever action is required, whenever action is necessary, I will defend the freedom and security of the American people Bush, a.

Against the backdrop of a painting of Jesus, with his body- language mirroring that of the Saviour, Bush is by association framed as everything that is heroic, noble, good, fair, honest, and blameless Photo: Spiegel Online, According to White House spokesperson Ari Fleischer a , however, nobody, but nobody, is more reluctant to go to war than President Bush …He hopes it can be averted, but he is also clear about the fact that one way to save American lives is to prevent Saddam Hussein from engaging in something that can be far, far worse than the price we saw on September Despite this reluctance, Bush b told the press at his ranch in Texas: I’m going to continue doing the job the American people expect, which is to safeguard America and Americans My job is to protect the American people I’ve got my mind on the peace and security of the American people.

And I will do that Bush, c. For this, the US Senate and House of Representatives gave him the authority to take the necessary actions against international terrorists and terrorist organizations, including those nations, organizations or persons who planned, authorized, committed or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, or harbored such persons or organizations The White House, The villain.

Saddam Hussein is the villain in this tale, “the man who tried to kill my dad”, according to George W. Bush, referring to an alleged plot to assassinate Bush Senior in Kuwait in Lyon, With his dark suit, fedora and moustache, the gun-toting Saddam Hussein apparently fits in his frame as a Brando-esque villain Photo: CNN, His brutal rule includes slaughter, rape, mutilation and the destruction of families … Saddam is working feverishly to acquire nuclear weapons Perle, a.

Much the same images were portrayed during Gulf War I, when Saddam was referred to as a Hitler, a dictator, a military strongman, a madman who was a menace to world peace and the American way of life, a beast and a monster that Bush Senior had to destroy Kellner, The victim or princess. In his 7 October speech in Cincinnati Bush laid a perfect foundation for the future portrayal of the American nation as a victim in the Gulf War II “fairytale”, who must be saved from the villain.

In this speech, Bush reminded the American people of 11 September , when America felt its vulnerability — even to threats that gather on the other side of the earth. We resolved then, and we are resolved today, to confront every threat, from any source, that could bring sudden terror and suffering to America.

During Operation Iraqi Freedom, US government officials often reminded the American people of the tragedy of 11 September, thereby framing them as the victim: vulnerable and in need of a saviour Photo: New York Newsday, We know that the regime has produced thousands of tons of chemical agents, including mustard gas, sarin nerve gas, VX nerve gas.

Saddam Hussein also has experience in using chemical weapons. He warned that if Iraqi could obtain the smallest amount of enriched uranium, it could produce a nuclear weapon in less than a year: We’ve experienced the horror of September the 11th. We have seen that those who hate America are willing to crash airplanes into buildings full of innocent people.

Our enemies would be no less willing, in fact, they would be eager, to use biological or chemical, or a nuclear weapon Bush, These views were repeated in January , when Bush again reminded the American people of their vulnerability and the threat Saddam posed: because of Al Qaeda connections, because of his history, he’s a danger to the American people, and we’ve got to deal with him before it is too late CBS, b.

The quest. Bush was quoted saying that Saddam was producing and hiding weapons that would enable him to dominate the region and intimidate “the civilized world — and we will not allow it” Bush, d.

Bush announced the start of the war from the Oval Office, and told his nation that his quest was to disarm Saddam in order to protect the Americans Photo: The Boston Globe, a. That duty falls to me as commander-in-chief by the oath I have sworn, by the oath I will keep. The terrorist threat to America and the world will be diminished the moment that Saddam Hussein is disarmed Bush, e. The donor. The US government acted as the donor of the magic agent that helped the hero in his quest.

The US Congress recognised “the threat to [their] country” and “voted overwhelmingly … to support the use of force against Iraq” Bush, f. Fully supportive of the war, despite a few in-house squabbles, “the House and Senate have been doing more cheerleading than debating or legislating when it comes to war-related issues” since the bombs started exploding over Baghdad St.

Louis Post-Dispatch, Congress exercised its war power “by building and maintaining the military through the budget — deciding what bombers to build and what tanks to buy”. The reason given for this united front was that once U.

Congress is not likely to leave them in a lurch St. In this instance, the US military acted as the magic agent provided by the government, the donor, to aid the hero in succeeding in his quest. This “magic agent” was described in the media as an “immense force” that Bush was about to unleash Walczak, , acting with “breathtaking precision, almost eyewatering speed, persistence, agility and lethality” Sullivan, a in order to “to disarm Iraq, to free its people and to defend the world from grave danger” Bush, g.

President Bush gives the thumbs-up sign to his troops, framed as the magic agent with which he planned to obliterate the villain Photo: The Boston Globe, b. The “peace of a troubled world” became the responsibility of the US military as Bush promised Saddam that he will use the “full force and might of the US military” against him, referring to the coalition troops, six carrier battle groups, and more than aircraft that were ready to “pummel Iraq” Walczak, As the offensive stages of the war drew to a close, Bush told the troops onboard USS Abraham Lincoln that we have fought for the cause of liberty and for the peace of the world.

Our nation and our coalition are proud of this accomplishment, yet it is you, the members of the United States military, who achieved it Because of you our Nation is more secure. Because of you the tyrant has fallen and Iraq is free Bush, h. The victory. This was the moment when the “magic agent” brought the evil villain to a fall in a scene rich in symbolism: the US tanks rolling up to the statue on the Al Firdos square, a Marine covering the face of Saddam with the American flag, then removing it to replace it with the Iraqi flag, the Iraqis trying but not succeeding to pull down the statue, the US Marines coming to the rescue, the giant Saddam that dominated the scene bowing to the American forces, falling, and ultimately revealing that it is nothing but an empty shell.

The fall of this last statue became symbolic of the fall of the Iraqi government, even though Saddam himself had not been captured at that stage CNN, c. When asked by the media when the instant of victory might come, the reply was: “I think we will know that moment when we see it”. That moment of victory apparently did not require either the apprehension of Saddam Hussein or the discovery of weapons of mass destruction. Instead, in another made-for- the-media scene, reminiscent of the film Top Gun, Bush dressed in a green flight suit and holding a helmet, got off a navy plane after it landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln CNN, d.

Although this happened outside the time frame of this study, it can be argued that the hero, Bush, finally won the hand of the victim or princess, namely the American people, when they re-elected him as president in the elections. Firstly, it was established why a theoretical approach is necessary for a study of practical journalism. The news flow models of gatekeeping, agendasetting and framing were subsequently examined.

An exploration of framing failed to identify a single generally acceptable definition of the concept, but it was determined that various authors agreed that news may be framed as a story. Consequently, Vladimir Propp’s seminal analysis of folktales was discussed and applied to general coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Also, studies are examined that employ story analyses reminiscent of Propp’s fairytale analysis to investigate news coverage. The primary objective of a literature review is to determine what has been done in the field of study and could therefore actually be referred to as a “scholarship review” Mouton, The current study commenced in , shortly after Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Due to the recency of the war, completed studies of news coverage during the war was practically non-existent, with the exception of Hafez’s case study of the effects of military involvement in conflict perception. Initially, therefore, the review of scholarship on the key issues of news flow and gatekeeping, agendasetting and framing was done on studies that had nothing to do with either Gulf War II in general or specifically Operation Iraqi Freedom, but which showed similarities in some respect.

However, by the end of the current study, a large corpus of research on Gulf War II news coverage became available in academic journals.

These scholarships were reviewed post hoc, and the most relevant works are included in this study for the sake of completeness. In other words, much of the literature was reviewed not to determine possible duplication of research or the methodology used by those authors as it is done traditionally Mouton, , but to indicate various approaches that were followed in studies that ran parallel to the current study.

Interestingly, shortly before the present study was concluded, the first results from a similar study conducted in the UK was published. The study by Robinson et al. The Robinson et al. Theses, dissertations, conference papers and refereed journal articles were consulted through the internet. In the flow of news from its sources to the audience reporters and editors are responsible for the selection of news; therefore they are gatekeepers Nossek, Journalists and editors are employed by media organisations, with their own priorities, and which form part of the greater media as institution.

In turn, the media as a whole is part of the social structure, and as such interacts with and is influenced by other societal constructs. When relevant news flow studies were identified, studies dealing with news flow to South Africa were also considered, even though none of them deal with news flow during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The gatekeeping studies that were reviewed only refer to Operation Iraqi Freedom coverage. The most notable of these, e. Because they form the basis of the analyses in the present study, the work done by the International Press Institute and Sreberny- Mohammadi is discussed briefly. It examines the way in which international news is reported and circulated, and notes that globally news flows irregularly, and that international agencies tend to concentrate on hard news and on “elite nations”.

War, politics and foreign relations are covered most frequently, while cultural activities and smaller nations as a whole are mostly ignored. Two of these findings are that politics and political actors dominate international news reporting everywhere, and that media across the globe tends to focus on events taking place in its immediate geographical region Stevenson, a. The latter did not apply to Operation Iraqi Freedom, when the South African media, like that of hundreds of nations across the globe, enthusiastically covered a war that was geographically and politically far removed from the audience itself; the reasons for this could be the subject of a separate study on news values, news flow and gatekeeping.

The results of the news flow study were never published in toto Schreiner, , but some participants decided to publish their “national” results, such as De Beer et al.

These results represent two of the very few international studies of news flow to Africa Schreiner, Eribo found that in Nigeria the source of most foreignreports could not be identified, as the newspapers did not credit news agencies. This study also showed that compared to the global news flow study of coverage of international trade and sports increased while global politics received less attention.

In their study of international news flow and events covered by African media, De Beer et al. They found that the media did not overly depend on the four agencies and that they used more stories from their own reporters and correspondents. This implied a shorter news channel with fewer gatekeepers to influence agendas and frames of the coverage.

A more recent news flow study in South Africa is the comprehensive work of South African media analyst Wadim Schreiner who did a quantitative study of news flow to, from, and within Africa.

He noted that although South African news coverage of events outside of Africa is decreasing, intense news incidents such as the attacks on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon on 11 September tend to confuse the picture of news flow to Africa Schreiner, Internationally, a number of news flow studies were conducted since Operation Iraqi Freedom, such as Hamilton and Jenner , Nossek and Horvit These studies look at the news flow phenomenon from a widely divergent range of viewpoints.

In their study of the changing face of foreign correspondence, American mass communication scholars John Maxwell Hamilton and Eric Jenner , delineate changes in international news flow with the aim of elucidating the implications of such changes for future researchers who want to study the interplay between news and international policy.

The authors of the study might have added a category for “expert non-affiliated foreign correspondents”, that is, foreigners who are experts in their field, but not journalists per se, hypothetically for example, if South African naturalist conservationist Lawrence Anthony would write a report for the Washington Post about the plight of the animals in the Baghdad Zoo. Because the term “foreign correspondent” no longer defines the traditional concept, Hamilton and Jenner concludes: We cannot assess the health of foreign correspondence merely by counting the number of reporters sent abroad by major dailies and the networks or by only analyzing stories in The New York Times, Newsweek and CBS News.

None of the incidents occurred in the selected countries, which means that they all can be regarded as foreign news. When it is neither, coverage conforms to traditional norms of foreign news coverage. This belies the common notion that acts of terrorism guarantees publicity, which is the purpose of the deed.

The study is interesting in terms of the flow of foreign news, but it is a pity that more recent acts of violence, such as the 11 September attacks on the US and the war in Iraq were not included; not only for the sake of recency, but because the media landscape — especially in terms of technology — had changed drastically during the past decade. Nevertheless, the study gives insight into the logic of reporters during times of national crisis.

American journalism academic Beverly Horvit conducted a study from another angle, namely to examine how six international news agencies reflected the international structure of political power in the period prior to Gulf War II This is done to determine in what ways the news that most probably have reached the American public differed from news that flowed to the rest of the international community: whose perspectives were most salient, and was the coverage for or against the Bush administration’s foreign policies?

Horvit also notes that contrary to the views of some critics, Western news agencies cover a broader geographical area than their non-Western counterparts, and also provided news much more frequently However, the non-Western agencies reported on countries that would rarely be covered by Western agencies, such as Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and the Ukraine, as well as Cuba, Cyprus and Nicaragua Horvit, Four of the agencies reported most frequently from the US and cited US officials more often than any other source Horvit, The study suggests that the Western news agencies are even-handed in their reporting, with especially AP, AFP and Reuters getting “much closer to balancing positive and negative statements toward the US” Horvit, Horvit concludes that [w]hile researchers have long studied the imbalance in the flow of news about particular countries, research into source dependency suggests the imbalance within the flow of international news should be addressed, as well An imbalance in sourcing practices is as problematic as — and is a reflection of — an overall imbalance in the flow of news.

This study gives a good idea of the leanings of the different news agencies, and it would be interesting if this study could be expanded in future to determine how the agency stories were eventually used by the media in different countries across the globe.

The news analysis of the current study partially addresses this issue. The Horvit study also illustrates the importance and effect of news agencies as gatekeepers in the channel of news flow. When reading these articles, however, it is clear that gatekeeping is addressed.

Ravi studies the gatekeeping role of nationality and elite opinion in the flow of news from its sources to the audience. The selected incidents and public addresses offer valuable points of reference to determine whether the newspapers accepted, rejected or digressed from the official US war frame, as well as to establish how national points of view and cultural and political differences shaped coverage of the war Ravi, Indian and Pakistani reports made civilian deaths much more salient “which fitted in with the image of a harsh and cruel war”.

Western society’s emphasis on the individual was mirrored in reports on individual casualties or rescue operations, while the South Asian emphasis was on the collective, which is in line with the value this society sets on the community, rather than the individual.

Ravi did not consider the possibility that the “openness and truth telling” of the US administration’s information management was part of a carefully planned strategy, aimed specifically at influencing public opinion in favour of the US war effort Rumsfeld, a.

Palmer and Fontan look at a completely neglected role-player in the gatekeeping process, namely the fixer, and examine how this additional link between the source and the reporter impacts upon newsgathering in Iraq.

To determine the key issues in the minds of reporters and fixers Palmer and Fontan conducted semi-structured interviews with 17 French and British reporters and 14 Iraqi fixers working for US, UK and Japanese print and audio-visual media. They arrange and even conduct interviews, translate, explain context to reporters, assess the security situation, handle dangerous situations and have access to networks of local contacts. Fixers help bridge the knowledge gap that is created by this practice.

Palmer and Fontan conclude that the traditional foreign correspondent had changed dramatically during Gulf War II Media bureaus in Iraq are staffed by a rotation of reporters, who do not know the country and its people and are unable to speak Arabic, which makes fixers indispensable.

Although Western reporters fear that their fixers would harm the quality of their reporting, an independent analysis is necessary to substantiate such a claim. The field of research begs to be expanded upon, for example, to determine the extent of the actual gatekeeping done by fixers.

It is clear that they are invaluable to especially unilateral reporters, but it is also obvious that hostile fixers might have a significant impact on the agenda set by a journalist’s reports. Also, in view of the strict rules applied by the US military with regard to what embedded reporters were allowed to do, it makes sense that locals who lead reporters to stories the military would have preferred to be ignored, might cause problems.

It would be interesting to study the stresses between the US military’s media policies and the fixer-phenomenon. Despite the controversy about the gatekeeping function of the US military, little research has been done on it.

Furthermore, research on people in gatekeeping positions does not explain the phenomenon in terms of the gatekeeping as a theory, e. The reasons for this can only be speculated about. However, this study will focus on only two of those stages, namely first and second level agendasetting. Also, although agendasetting is an effects theory, the reaction of the audience to the set agendas is not tested as the focus of the study is on the flow of news.

Agendasetting is a popular field of research, and during the period to scholars published the highest number ever 43 of international journal articles that refer to agendasetting Weaver, Obviously, not all of these studies refer to Gulf War II, but the controversial nature of the US government’s media policies during the war proved fertile ground for scholarly studies on agendasetting.

Due to the number of studies that were published since the start of Gulf War II, the current study will only focus on agendasetting research done on coverage during the war.

Research dealing with the period preceding the war includes studies by St. The main issue addressed in this study is the sources cited in coverage by the selected television broadcasters. This highlights an interesting and very important aspect in the debate about partiality in reporting: while reporters may be unbiased in their presentation of information, the slant of the story may be determined by the sources they choose to cite Ayeni, Ayeni notes that the disproportionate number of government and military officials cited may be an indication of covert propaganda on the part of the Bush administration’s “power brokers”, which does not bode well to the general public who have to accept media reports reflecting the agenda set by the US government.

This is a reasonable conclusion, although an in-depth study of the government’s media strategy may prove that this specific matter, namely the number of official sources cited, forms part of the more overt part of the US strategy. Results show that the news agenda before the war was dominated by war plans and diplomacy issues.

After the start of the war the news agenda consisted almost entirely of war reports, although in April criticism of the war plans was high on the agenda. In June and July , war intelligence and US casualties were added to the agenda. Neither Abu Dhabi Channel nor Al Arabiya reported on anything but the war in Iraq, while Al Jazeera reported on Palestinians who were killed and injured in Bait Hanoon in clashes with Israelis, as well as an explosion at a Palestinian high school that injured 27 pupils.

In the ancient Near East as well as in Greece the oath Akk. See my article in JAOS 93 , p. For reference see above note OGI, , 69, Bengtson III Thus for example we read in the Blessing and Curse section of the Deuteronomic covenant: ‘Blessed shall be the fruit of your womb, the fruit of your soil and the fruit of your cattle, the calving of your herd and the lambing of your flock’ More elaborate are the formulae found in the prologue to Deuteronomy 7.

The Lord will ward off from you all sickness. These formulae and especially the reference to sickness and sterility actually have their roots in the ancient epilogue to the Covenant Code.

And I will remove sickness from your midst. No woman in your land shall miscarry or be barren. Thus we find in the amphictyonic oath quoted by Aischines: that their land bear no fruit, that their wives bear no children.. Si s[cie]ns fallo.. Dessau Inscript. Herodotus VI 86 3 : ‘Yet an oath has a son, nameless, without hands or feet, but swift to pursue until he has seized and destroyed utterly the race and house of the perjured but the one who keeps his oath, his children are happier’.

For the curse as pursuing and overtaking cf. This concept of the curse which pursues, overtakes, and speedily destroys is found in Mesopotamian sources and appears in the Hittite treaties. See M. Weinfeld, DDS, pp. For the dependence of Deut. The Loyalty Oath in the Ancient Near East 27 And in the oath of the Athenians against the Barbarians: if I keep what is written in the oath, let my polis be without sickness..

This curse is actually found in the most ancient documents. For example, among the curses found at the end of the inscription of Yahdun-lim, King of Mari, we find: ‘and may the dead not accept him ‘ muti aj imhur, Syria 32 [], p. Dramatization of the Curses In the ancient world it was customary to accompany the curses with dramatic acts intended to illustrate the curses. Thus, for example, in the oath of the Hittite soldiers wax is melted to illustrate the melting of an infringer of the treaty, salt is scattered to illustrate the stoppage of his seed, barley is ground while threats are made that this is how the treaty-breaker’s bones are to be ground, women’s clothes, a spindle and a mirror are displayed so as to illustrate the fate of the treaty-breaker – that he shall turn into a woman; a blind and a deaf man are brought and threats are made that this will be the fate of the infringer, and so on.

In the Aramaic Sefire treaty we hear about illustrations of curses such as: burning wax figurines in fire, breaking bows and arrows, gouging out eyes from wax figurines, cutting up a calf, etc. In the vassal oaths to Esarhaddon we also find in the curses use of wax figurines, breaking bows, gouging out eyes, and displaying a spindle, but they are supplemented by other illustrations.

Siewert, DerEidvon Plataiai , pp. VTE Line etc. Weidner, AFO 8 , pp. For this reading cf. Ehrlich, Randglossen zurHebr. Bibel IV, p. For example, we find in the oath of the Hittite soldiers: ‘Just as this after it is put in the pan melts, may anyone who breaks the treaty melt’ I. In the first curse in the Sefire treaty ‘As this wax figurine is consumed by fire, thus Arpad.. As this wax is consumed by fire, thus Matti’el shall be consumed by fire’. And in the vassals’ oath to Esarhaddon: ‘Just as one burns a wax figurine salmu sa iskuri in fire Such a curse and its illustration are found in the pact between the people of Thera and the settlers of Cyrene which were inscribed on a stela.

They moulded wax figurines and burned them, and all those gathered, men, women and children recited curses: ‘May those who do not heed the words of the covenant and infringe them, melt and perish like this figurine, they and their seed, and their property Covenantal Sacrifices Sacrifices in connection with covenant making were very widespread in Greece Priest, JNES 23 , 48ff.

Stengel, Hermes 49 , p. For a Hittite ceremony in which the soldiers pass through pieces of animals and a cut man see O. Masson, RHR , pp. The origin of the rite itself seems to be anchored in some kind of protective ceremony, see E. Droit Orient. On the other hand the ceremony adds some sacred force to the pledge ibid. Gaster, Myth, Legend and Custom in the 97 , pp.

Forrefer, seen. That a figurine is spoken about may be learned from the continuation: WT1I7C? See references above, n. This parallel has been noticed by E. Bikerman, Arch. Picard, Rev. However in the meantime the clause from Esarhaddon’s treaty has been discovered. Stengel, Die Griech. Kultusalterttimer3, Handbuch der Klassischen Altertumswiss. Nilsson, Gesch. Religion3 , Band I, pp. Here, the warring princes obligate themselves by oath to destroy Thebai: they slaughter a bull and collect its blood and swear.

In Israel and in Greece three separate animals were chosen for covenantal sacrifices, in Greece TpiTTUEs , a bull, goat, and a boar, or bull, ram, and boar, and in Genesis: a calf, a goat, and a ram. Eternal Validity of the Oath The binding force of the oath is expressed in Mesopotamia, in the Bible and in Greece by means of identical terms. For sacrificial elements in the ‘covenant between the pieces’ in Gen.

For the gradual diminishing of the sacrificial element in the covenant see E. Bikerman, art. Weinfeld, DAS, ff. This parallel is discussed by E. Kutsch, FT 23 , pp. II 2,9. Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites2 , pp. Kultusaltertumer3 , p.

The birds were not cut up, as we may see from v. The holding of the iepa and the OTrAayxva: see P. Stengel, Hermes 49 , pp. The Akkadian expression is nikissa lapatu RA 18 [], 25 See CAD L, p. Nilsson, Geschichte dergriech. Religion3 , I.

Droit Orient 5, p. Compare also the phrase in the Elamite documents: ‘they have sworn, they have touched the head of their god’ cf. CAD L lapatu 1 b and the oath taken by the members of the private shrine at Philadelphia see above n.

V 11; VI 25 , 6cp6c ioxupa Aeschines 2. In a context similar to that of Aeschines amphictyonic oath we find in Judg. JAOS 93 [], pp. Erecting Monuments in Commemoration of the Covenant Commemoration of a pact by erecting stelas is already attested in Mesopotamia in the third millenium BCE cf.

Kramer, The Sumerian 3 10 f and is known from the Bible Gen. All of the above-mentioned finds indicate that there is a common, formal basis to loyalty oaths, treaties and general adjurations in the ancient world. The formal similarity between oaths and treaties in East and West is so great that it seems to be impossible not to assume an eastern influence on the west Greece and Rome in this area. Even were we to assume a chance independent formation of the formulae and ceremonies we would be forced to admit that the oriental treaties have much in common with the occidental ones and this common background can help us to clarify various problems involved.

Even before the ancient oriental material became known there were those scholars who claimed an oriental origin for the treaties and loyalty oaths of the West and especially the loyalty oaths to Caesar.

In order to become fully aware of the connection between the oriental fealty oaths and the oaths of loyalty to the Roman Emperor, let us examine the oath of the Paphlagonians which is the longest and most complex of these oaths and we will see that every one of its elements is already known from the loyalty oaths of the ancient Near East. It should be pointed out that in distinction to the Hittite treaties where the divine witnesses appear at the end, in Esarhaddon’s adjuration of the vassals and in the Sefire treaty the witnesses appear in the beginning just as in the Greek and Roman oaths.

Especially F. Cumont, Rev. An exception is the treaty with the Kaskeans cited above in note Swearing by the king himself was of special importance, cf.

Sifre Num. Concerning 11] meaning swear see S. Liebermann, Greek in Jewish Palestine p. There we find an oath by the ade of the king and the gods Bel and Nabu. The inclusion of Augustus in the list of divine witnesses should then be viewed against the background of the Emperor cult which crystallized in Rome even though the roots of this cult are in the Near East. Euvofjostv Katoapt ‘to be loyal’ or ‘to be well disposed’ to Caesar Augustus, and in the parallel clause in the oath of loyalty to Tiberius from Palaipaphos OGI On Genius Caesaris cf.

Weinstock, Divus Julius , p. Kunde d. Morg 57 [], pp. Frankena, Oudt St. Goetze, JCS 4 [ ], And in a document from Cappadocia: nisAssur ms ruba ‘im tamd ‘um ‘to swear by the life of Ashur and the life of the prince’.

Hrozny, Inscriptions cuneiformes du Kultepe, I , No. Lewy, HUCA, 27 [], pp. For Elam cf. Koschaker, Orientalia 4 , pp. Most instructive is the oath of a woman from the period of Bar-Cochba by the ruxr of the emperor. See HJ. Polotsky, IEJ12 , p. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational , p. Rel II3, pp. For the oath by the life of the king of Egypt see J. Except the oath by the Tuxn – cited above from the treaty between Smyrna and Magnesia which stems from the military character of the obligation, see P.

Herrmann, Kaisereid, p. Thus, for example, in Esarhaddon’s adjuration of the vassals: ‘their sons and their sons’ sons will fear him lipluhu ‘ line Loyalty to the king’s dynasty and progeny has been discussed in paragraph D. This expression appears in the loyalty oath to Ashurbanipal, in the oath of the vassals of Esarhaddon: ‘as long as we, our sons and our grandsons live’ KCU Ipyco?

We discussed this formula above in paragraph I. The oriental origin is very clear and it was noticed by classical scholars immediately after the discovery of the Hittite treaties. If I discern or hear anything being said or planned or done against them I will report it and I will be the enemy of him who says, plans or does any of those things’. This clause has formal resemblance to the corresponding part in the loyalty oath of the people of Chersonesus Taurica Syll.

I will report to the magistrates’. Mitford, Jour, of Roman St. Weinstock, Divus Julius, pp. For other instances see my book Deuteronomy, p. Schwahn, Symmachia, Real-Encyclop.

IV The Loyalty Oath in the Ancient Near East 33 The clause about uncovering traitors and rebels and reporting anything which one might see or hear is known to us – as we saw in paragraph F – from treaties and loyalty oaths in Akkadian, Hittite, Aramaic and Greek and has even penetrated into the Bible in the covenant of the Plains of Moab Deut.

The curse – We discussed the curse above in paragraph O and there we showed that the curse of non-burial of a treaty-infringer appears in the treaties and oaths from the ancient Near East. This threat is apparently connected to the presence of the gods of the netherworld as witnesses to the covenant above, paragraph N.

We discussed also the curses about ‘bearing fruit’ in the Israeli and Greek curses. The last section of the Paphlagonians’ oath speaks about the participation of the entire population of the city and province in the oath ceremonies held in the temples, and this matter was discussed above in paragraph K.

It is difficult to contend that such a full overlapping with the Near Eastern loyalty oaths is purely coincidental, and it is our opinion that the oath of loyalty to the Roman Emperor has its roots in an ancient Near Eastern tradition, as was already conjectured by F. It also seems that the ancient Near Eastern royal tradition is reflected in the titles granted to Julius Caesar by the Senate. According to Suetonius the emperor was granted, by decision of the Senate, omnia simul divina atque humana, ‘all of the markings of gods and man’.

Caesar 2. Appian, Bella Civilia II, pp. Alt, ‘Jesaia 8. There have been many claims that the fifth epithet in Isa. According to K. Schunk FT 23 [] p.

Perhaps it is not a coincidence that Suetonius and Dio Cassius speak about five titles, the number of titles known in Egypt and perhaps in Israel as well. II The Loyalty Oath to the God of Israel The elements of the loyalty oath as we have surveyed them thus far are actually contained in the covenant of the Plains of Moab and they are apparently in the background of the Sinaitic covenant Exod. Seux, Epithetes Royales Akkadiennes et Sumeriennes , p. Sarru damqu, Cf. Seux, ibid.

Weinfeld, DDS etc. For UQ2 as an ancient confession of faith see I. Elbogen, Studien zur Gesch. In a liturgy from the Manual of Discipline 1QS Talmon RevQ 2 , pp. M Ber. Israel’s acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of heaven down on earth is made an example of the angels’ acceptance of the yoke in heaven cf. Both of them receive the kingdom of God upon themselves by oath see below.

A loyalty oath of the heavenly retinue to the head of the pantheon is known to us from the Babylonian creation epic – Enuma Elis. We are told that the gods swear by oil and water and proclaim that Marduk’s kingship is exclusive and that he has no rival VI 95ff. In the continuation we read: ‘Let it be done on earth as has been done in heaven’ line , and in the Mesopotamian documents we hear indeed about human bearing of the divine yoke W. Lambert, BWL, p. Lambert and A. Millard, Atra-hasis, [], p.

Concerning the Qedushah which is an ‘acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of heaven’ by the angels and its connection to heavenly enthronement ceremonies in the ancient Near East, see S. Kramer, M. Weinfeld, Beth Miqra 19 , pp. Lieberman, JBL 71 , p.

The pledge of JOT is connected to the enthronement of God and acceptance of his exclusivity see previous note. Mann, HUCA 2 , p.

And see E. Urbach, The Sages , p. It should be pointed out that 1. The Loyalty Oath in the Ancient Near East 35 loyal to the King of the Universe just as the subjects of a corporeal king swear to their king. The new initiate’s oath was considered a sacramentum and was like a soldier’s oath of loyalty to his commanding officer, the members of the mystery sect being called militia.

See references s. For the equation of TOD and melammu see my article in Tarbiz 37 , p. Very enlightening in this matter is the passage in 2 Chron. X, No. I am grateful to Professor D. Asheri for lending me this edition of the book.

In his opinion, these concepts were borrowed from political-military loyalty oaths customary in the Near Eastern kingdoms. A more detailed discussion ofsancta militia is found in R. Reitzenstein, Die Hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen , pp.

Da nomen sanctae huic militiae, cuius non olim sacramento etiam rogabaris, teque iam nunc obsequio religionis nostrae dedica et ministerii iugum subi voluntarium Apuleius, Metamorph. XI 15, cf.

XI 30; iugum subeo. Yadin, The War of the Sons of Light etc. Libri V, 2 p. Concerning the military basis of the mystery religion of Mithra and its Iranian origins, see G. Widengren, Religionen Irans f. Apuleius also tells about a member of cohorte religionis unus who gives him his coat Metamorph. XI Very important in this respect is the passage in Eph. This epistle is full of contacts with the Qumran Literature and Jewish literature in general.

Flusser, Scripta Hierosyl 4 , p. A to which we may cf. What did the people of the city do? They rose to their feet, uncovered their heads and read it in awe, fear, trembling and trepidation. See, for example, Thucydides 5. For the formula in the Egyptian Hellenistic documents see L. Mitteis, Reichsrecht u. Volksrecht etc.

Rabinowitz, Jewish Law , p. See R. Furthermore, the rest of the formulae cited by Rabinowitz are also not of Aramaic origin since they are attested in Assyrian documents.

Postgate, Neo-Assyrian Grants , for these documents. Ebeling, Neubabyl. Briefe ,p. Ruth 4. For D’p in the Qumran scrolls see M. Kadari, 3Vnn , p. Smith, Babylonian Historical Texts , p. See von Soden, Ahw pataru 5a and cf. Landsberger, Th. Bauer, ZA 37, p. Concerning baring the head during prayer see 1 Cor. Margalioth edition for additional references. Liebermann, JQR 35 , pp.

D ed, precious, sweet and pleasant’ – we have already discussed terms of love indicating faithfulness. Therefore, in Ps. In Judg. Borger, Die Inschriften Asarhaddons , p.

See also Leshonenu 36 , pp. For DTD in covenantal context see H. Ginsberg apud Bickerman, Amer. For 11N meaning admire, see Exod. See above p. I7n ]lpsn in the Mishnah Git. According to Borger’s reading: abutu annitu inapanikunu lu mahrat ina muhhikunu lit tabat.

The translation of E. Reiner in ANET3. If Wiseman is right in reading lu da-ri rather than lu t[abat] cf. GAtu ‘good’, and see We find, for example, in Est.

However, from various Egyptian documents one may learn that the Egyptians too used to demand loyalty oaths from their subjects and vassals, and, similarly to the oaths surveyed in this study they contain the following pledges: 1.

Thus we read in the Barkal stela of Thutmose III that the king administered an oath of fealty sdftryf to the people of Megiddo with the words:’we shall not repeat any evil thing against Mn-hpr-r’ during our lifetimes’ Urkunden IV Amenhotep II tells us that after defeating Kadesh, he adjured the people and their sons to keep loyalty Urkunden IV In a papyrus from the time of Ramses III, we read that Pharaoh administered an oath of fealty to one of his subjects that he will not hear or see anything without informing his master about it Edgerton, JNES10 [], p.

Professor S. Tamid 5. Abramson, Sinai Tishrei-Heswan [], p. This is the nwt[ryqwn] in a reverted form of ‘DDK of the Decalogue, which actually constitutes the response of Israel to God’s proclamation opened with Fux, M. Amit and R. Meridor for being helpful in connection with this article. Helck, Die Beziehungen Agyptens zu Vorderasien im 3. Jahrtausend v. XVIII , p.

Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, no. The translation ‘and one would call to the other “Holy” etc. This interpretation is indeed applied to Isa. Luzatto in his commentary on Isaiah. This interpretation appears to be the most plausible. We read there: the sound of the wings of the HITI beating against one another and the sounds of the facing them’. For a discussion of the liturgy see I.

Elbogen, Derjudische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung l , pp. For an up to date discussion see J. Heinemann in the Hebrew translation of this work , pp. ARN ed. Schechter , newly corrected edition, N.

Compare the Yoser Liturgy S. Fleischer, Tarbiz 38 , p. Margalioth, Sepher Ha-Razim , p. Gruenwald, in A. Schalit Memorial Volume , p. Compare also Rashi to Isa. Luzatto, nnni? The terms nEU1? The harmony between the singers the Levites and musicians the priests is perfect as is explicitly stated in 2 Chr.

The trumpeters and singers join in harmony to sound forth in praise with one voice Singing in unison is expressed in other instances by “TIT. T in the sense of ‘unison’ is clearly reflected in Isa. About the heavenly retinue arrayed in a choir, we hear inBenSira His angels were unable to completely recount all his wonders Loewenstamm [], p.

In the conventional Qedushah liturgy which combines Isa. In order to express the antiphon here too PIQU1? Singer, SPB, p. Kutscher, Tarbiz 33 [] p. In the Qumran Targum of Job this is rendered: when the morning stars shone together and all of God’s angels shouted in unison’ cf. XXX: The ‘shining’ of the stars expresses their adoration as the ‘voices’ of the angels.

On the luminaries as angels cf. The angels are the Lord’s servants and must fulfil their duties, everybody according to his place in the hierarchy. Similar concepts are attested in Mesopotamian hymns concerning the Annunaki and the Igigi, which overlap in many ways the angels in the Israelite tradition.

The Muses in the Greek tradition, which functionally and typologically also resemble the angels,17 are said to sing to Zeus in unison This is discussed in chapter 5, below. Lambert, in Zikir sumin, Festschrift F. Kraus , p. The angels in the Bible constitute, as is well known, the heavenly council, cf. Chapter 5. Compare Ps. These are the Annunaki and the Igigi who like the angels in Israel are considered the princes of the nations cf.

Daniel The Muses appear in several functions, recalling the various functions of the angels: 1. The Muses are, as known, omniscient; cf. They appear from the mist Hesiod, Theogony 9 ; cf. The angel that struck Jacob in Gen. Here we read: ‘They all stand in purity and holiness, offering songs and hymns, praise and jubilation HTm 20 Mew sing in unison with the angels The belief that the earthly worshippers praise the Lord as do the angels of heaven is alluded to already in the hymns of the OT.

Thus the author of the Thanksgiving Hymn in 1QH: 3. Hesiod, Theogony, Wertheimer, , p. Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah and Mysticism, p. Flusser, ‘Sanktus und Gloria’, Festschrift O. Michel, p. Odeberg, 3 Enoch , 7. Dl”l in H. Kuhn, Enderwartung undgegenwdrtiges Heil , pp. The angels were also mustered according to their ranks, cf. For a discussion of the term IQtfQ cf. Kuhn Enderwartung etc. Compare in the ‘Qedushah’ liturgy in Apost. VII, 35 ed.

As is clear from the first example, the angels and the men not only sing praises together, they also have a common lot. Thus we read in 1QS Compare also 1QH 6. Restored according to 3. Kuhn, Enderwartungen p.

Holm-Nielson, Hodayot , p. This refers to the new creation in the eschatological sense, see Kuhn, Enderwartung, pp. For the ‘new creation’ see also 1QH Charles, Pseudepigrapha, ad he. II, p. Kimron, Shnaton IV , p. For the relationship between lQH3. For this idiom cf. For the restoration cf.

Kuhn, Enderwartung, p. For the angels as Dm33, cf. Those who join the angels in praise feel that they cast their lot with them, thus achieving eternal life, and the same applies to those who fight in battle together with the heavenly beings.

Thus, for example, those who were lifted to the height of the universe in order to stand among the ranks of the angels in praise 1QH 3. Similarly, those who stand in rank together with the eternal host praising God 1QH Though this concept of a share with the angels is not common in Rabbinic literature it is reflected in the Jewish liturgy which has affinities with Qumran liturgical texts in other respects as well. In one of the morning prayers34 recited before an early Shema’ proclamation SPB, p.

Happy are we who early and late, morning and evening, twice every day declare. The Shema’ is connected with the Qedushah ritual: Shema’ on earth is said in unison with the angels who proclaim the Qedushah in heaven.

The dictum there is based on Isa. Studien, pp. See Kuhn, Enderwartung, pp. As will be shown elsewhere it is especially these prayers which have their counterparts in the Qumran liturgy. The prayer is found in Tanna debe Eliahu ed. Friedman , ch. Horowitz-Rabin, p. The Heavenly Praise in Unison 51 eschatological connotation.

As has been indicated plT[,Lrn3 have an eschatological meaning already in the Psalmodic literature see n. The idea of the congregation on earth joining the angels in their praise stands behind the whole pattern of the Qedushah liturgy and has penetrated the ancient Christian liturgy.

Thus we read in 1 Clem. This, as has already been seen by D. Flusser,39 parallels the poems of the Qedushah in the Jewish liturgy: ‘let us sanctify your Name in this world, even as they sanctify it in the heavens above’, and the other similar openings of the Qedushot.

This notion of emulating heavenly powers in connection with the Qedushah is also reflected in the Apostolic Constitutions, which as already shown by Bousset,40 preserved in a most genuine manner the Jewish Qedushah. Thus we find there,41 after the two basic constituents of the Qedushah.

The liturgy of the Qedushah is thus founded on the notion that the members of the congregation on earth can join in the angelic song, and, in unison, as if in a single chorus, sing out praise to their Creator. Indeed, the custom of lifting one’s heels when reciting the Qedushah is rooted in just this idea. Compare also Ignatius, Ephesians 4. Werner, HUCA 19 , p. Nachrichten der Ges. Gottingen, Phil. Compare in the MusafQedusha’. See also the Epistle to the Corinthians of Clement of Rome This is to be compared with passages of the Yoser-Qedushah from the Genizah published by S.

Schechter in Gedenkbuch zur Erinnerung an D. Kaufmann, p. Asaf, Festschrift B. Dinaburg , p. For various explanations of this custom in Rabbinic literature see I. Gruenwald, art. In contrast to this, we shall try to point up the features this sect has in common with other sections of Judaism.

Although in the second temple period orthodoxy, such as that which developed under the Pharisees after the destruction of the second temple, was not yet in existence, there were, nevertheless, certain norms concerning the way of life and the worship of God which were the common inheritance of the various streams of Judaism during this period. In this paper we shall deal with this common inheritance.

In the Judaism of the second temple period, there existed a wealth of religious and social obligations that were self-evident, even though they were not prescribed in the Torah. Among these are matters for which the Pharisees laid down rules in the Oral Law. However, there are also others for which there are no definitive rules laid down in the Mishnah based on the Oral Law, and which remain within the bounds of sanctified customs, as we shall see below.

In fact, it is difficult to know exactly when specific customs began to crystallize. For example, the obligation to recite a Benediction upon seeing a rainbow in the cloud, which appears in t. For example, the ‘Enjoyment Benedictions’ priori rTO”n m. The Babylonian poem of the righteous sufferer dating to the first half of 1. On the variations of formulae in the Rabbinic sources, see S. The Book of Ben Sira. The Mishnah does not prescribe the Benediction, but rather asks: ‘What Blessings are said?

The obligation to say the Benediction is a self-understood assumption. The Thanksgiving Benedictions called bfrUn rD”D, the Benedictions of Deliverance were instituted for four situations in which people are required to offer thanksgiving: the sick person recovered from an illness, the prisoner set free, the sea voyager upon reaching dry land, and the traveller in the desert upon reaching his destination.

Shema’ Let us begin with the recitation of the Shema’ with which the Mishnah opens. This can be interpreted in the sense that he ate that which belonged to the god; see Lambert, ‘The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer’, p.

The Benedictions of Thanksgiving to be said by those who have been delivered from calamity appear in Ps. For a discussion of this, see M. See m. Nock, Conversion , pp.

Here also, as in the Enjoyment Benedictions above n. Prayer and Liturgical Practice in the Qumran Sect 55 yoke of the kingdom of heaven,11 in the words of the Pharisees 12 whose meaning is obligation with an oath, as has been explained by S.

This fact shows us that in the Qumran prayers as in the conventional Jewish liturgy, the Benediction of the Lights is conjoined with the recitation of the Shema V4 The Qedushah and the Benediction of the Lights A surprising congruence can be found between the hymn of the creation of the luminaries and the [song] of the angels from Qumran Cave II,15 and the liturgical Yoser hymns in the conventional prayers, and those from the Geniza, as I have shown above.

Around the throne or the divine chariot, the angels stand singing,18 and all this occurs at the hour at which the luminaries appear, and the gates of darkness and light are opened. This coincides with the conventional Jewish prayers, in which SifreNum, Section ed.

Horowitz, On the recitation of the Shema’ as qlws acclamation and the manner of its recitation in public, see. See chapter 2 Ibid See my article, ‘Prayers for Knowledge and Forgiveness’, pp. Parallel formulae have also been found in the prayer for the Sabbath in the See chapter 2, ‘Traces of Qedushat Yoser See Chapter 2.

See N. Petuchowski and E. Fleischer, , pp. Lee I. Levine, , pp. The people that hallow the seventh day, even all of them, shall be satiated and delighted..

SPB, p. Another formula found in the prayers of Sabbaths and Festivals in the Qumran Scroll edited by Baillet28 is that which appears in 4Q, fragment 3 p. It is interesting to note that the idea of the ingathering of the exiles in connection with a Festival appears in the Septuagint translation of Jer.

Joshua says, ‘In the month of Nisan they were delivered, in the month of Nisan they will be delivered in the time to come’ b. Rosh Hash. A Qumran fragment in which we find formulae congruent with those in the prayers for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur is 1Q These words are parallel to the section of a prayer from the service of the High Holy Days:.

The incarceration of the outcome of iniquity in the Qumran passage is analogous to iniquity closing her mouth, just as the image of the disappearance of wrong like smoke in the Qumran passage parallels the idea of wickedness being wholly consumed like smoke, in the conventional prayer.

On the basis of this perception, David Flusser suggested seeing in the passage a part of the sect’s Rosh Hashanah service in his lecture at the Ninth World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem, In 4Q 2.

The text lQ34bls, which is connected with the Day of Atonement, has points of contact with the conventional ne’ilah closing prayer for Yom Kippur. But You have chosen a people in the time of Your favour. For You do not desire Q”lBnn N1? However, there is a difference. Another text with a motif identical to that of the first Benediction of the Amidah is the fragment from the Genesis Apocryphon, which refers to the shield 3. There we read words which go beyond the framework of the Targum to the verses: ‘I am a shield to you’ Gen.

The Benediction of the Shield of Abraham should also be compared with the Benediction of the Ge ‘ula which comes before the Amidah: Helper of our Fathers you are from eternity, Shield and Saviour for their descendants after them every generation’ SPB, p. In the Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave we have found Songs and Thanksgiving with elements congruent with the Morning Benedictions of the conventional liturgy.

The liturgy from Cave 11, which the editor has named ‘Plea for Deliverance’32 is none other than the Morning Thanksgiving, which opens by praising God for the return of breath after the night’s sleep and is interwoven with a Blessing to God who performs loving kindness toward his created beings.

This is followed by a request for forgiveness for iniquities and for deliverance from afflictions IttS and temptations from Satan and the evil inclination ITU! It appears that ‘sprk’ is a loanword from Persian, where spr means a shield.

Fitzmyer, The Genesis Apocryphon , p. The public prayers of supplication in Qumran and in Judaism belong typologically to the category of national confessions, as do the above biblical fragments.

Compare: a. U Nip] “JD2? Weinfeld, review article of B. Kittel, The Hymns of Qumran wBibl. Orientalis 41 , pp. Manfred R. Elbogen, Derjtidische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung , pp. Elbogen, ibid, pp. Baer, ibid. Baer, iWd, pp. Prayer and Liturgical Practice in the Qumran Sect 61 The dominant motif in both Dibrei Hame’orot and the Prayer for Mondays and Thursdays is the remembering of the covenant with the patriarchs.

You have been gracious to p. Your people, Israel i countries whither You have banished them 4Q , V And gather our exiles from the four corners of the earth Baer, p.

However, one should question how the request for deliverance from violence: ‘DVil “[U We find however that in the prayer before setting forth on a journey mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud Ber. This combination is now comprehensible to us in the light of the fragment from Qumran, which includes biblical verses referring to Jacob’s going on his way Gen.

Both these incidents, connected with the encountering of assailants while on a journey and deliverance from them, are most suitable for prayers and requests in which one asks for deliverance from the perils of a journey.

John M. Allegro, DJD 5, p. One should note that the traditional Benediction of the Marriage Ceremony centres around three principal subjects: 1 The creation of man coming from the power of procreation whose original source comes from Adam and Eve who are mentioned in the Benediction for the Marriage Ceremony, 2 The rejoicing of the groom and bride against the background of love, companionship and friendship connected with this, 3 The rejoicing of Jerusalem in whose streets a cry of joy and gladness bursts forth.

Although today we are accustomed to the seven Benedictions in the order of the marriage service, we know that there existed a difference of opinion between the communities of Babylon and Palestine and that the Palestinian Jews used to recite only three Benedictions during the marriage ceremony. Baumgarten50 attempted to refute the claim that the scroll refers to the Benediction for the Marriage Ceremony on the basis of the allusion to old men and women in this text.

He claimed that the text apparently refers here to old men who joined the sect, basing his claim on the description of the therapeutai in Philo the Alexandrian. However, he did not consider the fact that in the prophetic description of Jerusalem, reinhabited and teeming with life, from which the expressions in the Benediction for the Marriage Ceremony are drawn such as Jer.

The reference to lulavim palm branches found here51 is reflected in the custom of bringing myrtle to the hupa and reciting a Benediction over them,52 a custom mentioned in the b.

DJD 7, pp. See Siddur R. Saadja Gaon ed. Davidson, S. Assaf and B. Joel, , p. There the Sabbath is likened to a bride whom they go out to meet with bundles of myrtle 3. Prayer and Liturgical Practice in the Qumran Sect 63 Grace After Meals A division of opinion existed among the Tannaim over whether the three Benedictions should be recited only after eating bread, or whether it was necessary to say the Benedictions also after eating the fruits with which the land of Israel was blessed m.

According to R. Gamaliel, the commandment ‘And you shall eat and be satisfied and you shall bless’ Deut. It is interesting that in the Qumran fragment 4Qdeutn in which the biblical verses under discussion appear,54 there is a space of one line between the words ‘a land of wheat and barley, of vines etc.

Stegemann, who first edited this fragment,55 was surprised by this line space between the verses and was unable to explain it. It would appear that the space can only be explained against the background of this difference of opinion among the Sages.

The scribe of the scroll before us wished to make it known that the Benediction in v. Minyan In the Manual of Discipline we find the fixed order of the quorum often men for prayer 1QS These three situations: official prayer, grace after a communal meal when invoking the name of God and also the reading of the Torah require the Minyan in conventional Jewish Halakhah.

The Sages regulated that one Benediction, an abstract of the three V1? In his article, ‘4Q Mit Exzerpten aus Deuteronomium’, pp.

It is interesting to note that in another text from Qumran 4Q in which the people’s satisfaction with the land, rather than their eating of its fruit is emphasized, the hemistich ‘a land where you may eat food without sting’ is omitted.

See C. For example, the priest passes at the head of the procession of the entering into the covenant 1QS 2. Josephus, War 2. As I have mentioned elsewhere,58 the priest was considered as the leader in the Qumran sect, at least in a formal way. So also in Pharisaic law, we find a preference for the priest in similar matters: the priest is the first to begin the reading of the Torah, the first to recite a Benediction at a communal meal, and not only after the meal, but also before it see below , and in general, the priest appears as first in things concerned with holy matters, as can be learned from the Beraitha of the School of R.

Ishmael: “inETTpl’ ‘and you must treat him as holy’ Lev. The Canon Although members of the sect wrote literary compositions beyond that permitted according to the conventional Pharisaic criterion of sacred books, they also believed that there was a series of sacred books, a canon consisting of the Torah and Prophets: the law of Moses and the books written by the servants of the Lord, the prophets. This triple sense of canonical writings is reflected in the liturgy of Rosh Hashanah: the references to Kingdom, Remembrances and Shofars The liturgy is divided into three sections: verses from the Torah; writings which were said ‘by Your Servants, the Prophets’; verses from the writings: ‘by the words of Your Holy One’.

The threefold division of the canon also appears in the Greek introduction to Ben Sira60 and in the Gospel of Luke See t. On ‘the Torah, the Prophets and the rest of the Writings’ see M. Prayer and Liturgical Practice in the Qumran Sect 65 are enumerated. Furthermore, even the division of opinion in medieval Judaism over the methods of Rashi and Rabenu Tarn is reflected in Qumran.

These customs, however, were based upon the Judaism of the second Temple period. Shema ‘ before the Shema ‘ of evening SPB,p. In connection with the combination of Torah and Prophecy in Qumran, see G. DJD 6,4Q , pp. Albright Volume , pp.



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